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XIIth International Symposium on Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming

Freestyle arm entry effects on shoulder stress, force generation, and arm synchronisation


29 Apr 2014


Dr Rod Havriluk, Swimming Technology Research


Dr. Havriluk is co-author with Dr Theodore Becker on swimming research projects.


Previous research showed that immediately after the arm entry, female butterfly swimmers wasted time (30% of the stroke cycle) with their arms in a weak position that stressed their shoulders (Becker & Havriluk, 20 I 0). The present study was designed to examine the prevalence of an ineffective arm entry in freestyle with respect to gender and the impact on shoulder stress, force generation, and arm synchronisation.

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