United States

The information presented below is currently being assembled. Unless otherwise indicated, much of this content is yet to be properly evaluated and assessed for its currency and accuracy. As such, access to this information has been limited to a select audience. Please refer to the Clearinghouse for Sport Disclaimer page for more information concerning this content.

 

USA Flag

Prepared by: Greg Blood, Emeritus Researcher, Australian Institute of Sport
Updated by: Gavin Reynolds, Director, Clearinghouse for Sport (July 2016)
Reviewed by: International Association for Sports Information (IASI)
Scheduled release: August 2016

The information presented below is regularly reviewed and updated. Your feedback and input is encouraged and appreciated to help ensure the currency and accuracy of the information provided. If you would like to suggest a resource, submit content or provide feedback regarding this portfolio of information, please contact us.

Please refer to the Clearinghouse for Sport Disclaimer page for more information concerning this content.


Index of content:


Introduction

The United States of America (US) has sent athletes to almost every modern Summer Olympic Games, with the exception of Moscow 1980, during which it led an international boycott. The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) is the US National Olympic Committee and overarching governing body for the Olympic and Paralympic movement in the US. (Wikipedia)

USOC is supporting the Boston bid for the 2024 Olympic and Paralympic Games. 

Table 1: Key national performance metrics

Population Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Summer Olympic
Gold Medal Ranking (2016)

Winter Olympic 
Gold Medal Ranking (2014)
Summer Paralympic Gold Medal Ranking (2016) Winter Paralympic Gold Medal Ranking (2014)
317 million 15.68 trillion USD (2012) 1st 4th 4th 8th

 


Sport Structure and Governance

Government

  • The President's Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition promotes programs and initiatives that motivate people of all ages, backgrounds, and abilities to lead active, healthy lives through partnerships with the public, private, and non-profit sectors.

Structure

  • The US Federal Government plays a limited role in sport. It relies heavily on organisations and service providers outside of government to deliver sporting programs for its citizens. The majority of elite athletes are developed through the high school and collegiate high performance sporting pathway.
  • A conceptual diagram of the US Sport System (source: National Federation of State High School Associations).
  • The Amateur Sports Act of 1978  (Wikipedia) established the USOC as the national governing body for Olympic and Paralympic sports in the US. The Act effectively minimises US Federal Government involvement in Olympic and Paralympic sport governance and funding decisions. However, the US Federal Government does provide financial assistance to the Paralympic sports through its 'Veterans Affairs Paralympic Program' and supports sport in the US military. The Federal Government also funds anti-doping activities in the US.
  • The US is home to a number of dominant professional sporting codes including Gridiron (NFL), Basketball (NBA), Baseball (Major League), and Ice Hockey (NHL).
  • The US high performance sport pathway is strongly supported by the collegiate system. US high schools often work together to form sports leagues. US college sport plays a significant role in developing and furthering talented athletes. There are three major college sporting system structures - National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), and National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA).  

Funding to Sport

Table 2: Private and Government Funding to Sport

Organisation

Government/Private 

Year

United States Olympic Committee (USOC) Private (not-for-profit)

USD$505,978m (2005-2009)
USD$604,228m (2009-2012)

President’s Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition
Government USD$1.25m (2014)
Dept of Veterans Affairs Paralympic Program Government USD$8m (2014)
[Source: USOC Annual Report, US Dept. of Health and Human Services Fiscal Year 2015 - Justification of Estimates for Appropriations Committees and Dept of Veterans Affairs Volume III Benefits and Burial Programs and Departmental Administration, Congressional Submission, FY 2015]


High performance system 

High Performance Organisations 

  • United States Olympic Committee (USOC): The US National Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee governing body. As such, the USOC is responsible for the training, entering and funding of national teams for the Olympic Games, Paralympic Games, Youth Olympic Games, Pan American and Parapan American Games, while serving as a steward of the Olympic Movement throughout the US.
  • National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA): The principal national college sports organisation
  • U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA): The US Federal Government sponsored anti-doping agency. 

High Performance Summary

  • The USOC provides grants to 31 Olympic summer national governing sport governing bodies (NGBs), 8 Olympic winter NGBs, 8 Pan American NGBs, and 15 Paralympic sports. USOC has a targeted approach to NGB's funding.
  • The USOC maintains three national training centres and supports 13 Olympic Training Sites.
  • There are more than 2,000 US colleges and universities supporting intercollegiate athletic teams. The NCAA has 1,075 active and provisional member institutions. Many US Olympians have received scholarships (including free room and board, use of world class training facilities, and access to leading coaches) provided by their respective colleges and universities. Traditionally successful sports such as swimming and athletics are highly dependant on the US collegiate system. Foreign athletes (including Australians) have and can obtain scholarships. A number of Australian athletes have secured basketball scholarships proir to being promoted into the high profile WNBA and NBA leagues.
  • The US Military assists athletes through several programs including:
    • The Armed Forces Sports US Dept of Defense
    • The US Army World Class Athlete Program  (WCAP) provides outstanding soldier-athletes the support and training to compete and succeed in national and international competitions leading to Olympic and Paralympic Games, while maintaining a professional military career and promoting the U.S. Army to the world.
    • The Dept. of Veterans Affairs National Veterans Sports Programs & Special Events Office aims to motivate, encourage and sustain participation and competition in adaptive sports among disabled veterans and members of the Armed Forces through partnerships with VA clinical personnel as well as national and community-based adaptive sports programs. USOC Paralympic Military Program works closely with Dept. of Veterans Affairs. In 2013, $USD8m was provided to USOC and its partners to assist 16,000 veterans  through VA’s Paralympics Program and USD$2m in monthly assistance to participating veterans. 
  • The USOC presently supports and provides funding to approximately 1,500 Winter and Summer Olympic athletes.
  • The USOC provides Direct Athlete Assistance and Elite Athlete Health Insurance through respective NGB's.
  • Sports science and medicine services are provided through three USOC Training Centres located in Colorado Springs, Chula Vista, and Lake Placid. The USOC has also partnered with a number of institutions to form 18 'Team USA Training Sites' (www.teamusa.org).

Performance Targets

  •  The USOC does not set medal targets. However, as a highly successful Olympic nation (particularly dominant more recently at Summer Olympic Games), there is a general expectation or aim to finish top of the medal table.

Funding to high performance sport 

Table 3: USOC Revenue Sources

Source 2005-2008 2009-2012
Contributions USD$98.353 USD$164.090
Broadcast rights USD$206.574 USD$268.325
USOC marks rights income USD$318.624 USD$284.438
Licencing royalties USD$27.056 USD$28.586
US Olympic Foundation Grants USD$49.311 USD$36.316
Investment income USD$11.380 USD$3.676
Other USD$23.707 USD$66.539
Total Revenue USD$735.005m USD$851.970m
 

Table 4: USOC Expenditure

Expenses 2005-2008 2009-2012 
NGB Grants USD$236,765m USD$269,584m
US Paralympics USD$30,534m USD$75,391m
Olympic Training Centres USD$96,542m USD$98,597m
National Events USD$9,051m USD$9,222m
International competition USD$36,327m USD$60,605m
Sports science USD$20,235m USD$6,173m
Drug control USD$17,636m USD$15,412m
Public relations USD$11,902m USD$10,803m
Sports medicine USD$9,951m USD$9,503m
Education and archival services USD$1,211m USD$13,952m
International relations USD$9,823m USD$11,260
Program committees USD$364,000 USD$418,000
Coaching programs USD$1,480m USD$1,509m
Broadcasting USD$10,356m USD$19,461m
Other USD$13,801m USD$2,238m
Total Program Services Expenses USD$505,976m USD$604,228m
Support services - Fundraising, Sales and Marketing USD$176,859m USD$188,526m
Total Expenses USD$682,837m USD$792,754
[Source - USOC Annual Report 2012]

NGB's Funding 

Table 5: USOC Summer Olympic Sports Funding 

Sport 2011  2012 2013 2014   2015
Archery USD$654,421 USD$879,853 USD$780,199  USD$874,000 USD$783,353
Athletics USD$2,722,111  USD$4,692,456 USD$4,097,294  USD$2,945,550 USD$3,200,335
Badminton USD$345,266 USD$250,605 USD$191,174  $UD173,157 USD$137,270
Basketball USD$870,647  USD$1,020,549 USD$1,052,550  $USD1,038,355 USD$1,040,354

Boxing

USD$422,215 USD$660,414 USD$607,722  $USD509,675 USD$919,165
Canoeing USD$616,226 USD$528,805  USD$459,679  $USD667,851 USD$ 328,620
Cycling USD$1,319,713  USD$1,543,155 USD$1,287,194  $USD1,312,866 USD$1,343,401
Diving USD$1,015,727  USD$1,522,647 USD$1,030,01 $USD1,034, 063 USD$ 1,089,129
Equestrian USD$1,160,296  USD$1,221,317 USD$999,190  $USD1,065,112 USD$ 1,008,000
Fencing USD$1,050,706 USD$897,421 USD$938,296 $USD952,983  USD$810,338
Football USD$604,207  USD$793,88  USD$785,452 $USD748,359 USD$772,529
Golf  0  0  $USD27,500 $USD27,500  USD$ 27,834
Gymnastics USD$1,713,049 USD$2,711,433 USD$1,873,259 $USD1,889,862 USD$1,964,405
Handball USD$283,202  USD$191,366 USD$298,354  USD$301,180 USD$ 106,554
Hockey USD$807,485  USD$848,786 USD$591,703 $USD608,938  USD$954,658
Judo USD$585,879  USD$683,250 USD$824,685  $USD840,628 USD$766,793
Modern Pentathlon USD$326,326  USD$321,467 USD$459,376  $USD393,125 USD$588,577
Rowing USD$1,351,114  USD$1,741,785 USD$1,390,527  $USD1,336,177 USD$1,833,309
Rugby USD$165,137  USD$579,029  USD$650,270  $USD639,614 USD$934,854
Sailing USD$1,155,095  USD$1,426,725 USD$1,357,351  $USD1,869,254 USD$1,048,788
Shooting USD$1,747,246  USD$2,413,406 USD$2,000,798  $USD2,120,095 USD$2,531,565
Swimming USD$2,493,200  USD$4,164,466 USD$2,799,708  $USD2,725,986 USD$3,242,050
Syncro Swimming USD$489,116  USD$371,002 USD$385,509   $USD371,699 USD$222,906
Taekwondo USD$549,449  USD$703,770 USD$574,469 $USD554,128 USD$ 440,724
Table Tennis USD$149,207  USD$231,617 USD$241,853  $USD387,518 USD$ 201,232
Tennis  0 USD$85,663 USD$100,000  $USD100,000 USD$215,000
Triathlon USD$547,271  USD$815,026 USD$1,44,038 $USD1,049,624  USD$1,106,282
Volleyball  USD$1,232,496  USD$1,771,806  USD$1,692,572  $USD1,089,823 USD$1,933,796
Water Polo USD$932,242  USD$1,330,913 USD$997,941  $USD978,637 USD$1,373,207
Weightlifting USD$290,611  USD$248,332 USD$217,461  $USD280,197 USD$ 280,105
Wrestling USD$1,280,989  USD$1,476,347 USD$1,510,350  $USD1,512,303 USD$1,562,317

 

Table 6: USOC Winter Olympic sports funding

Sport 2011 2012  2013 2014   2015
Biathlon USD$1,222,353  USD$1,022,549  USD$1,237,946  USD$1,203,935 USD$979,788
Bobsleigh & Skeleton USD$1,502,811  USD$1,794,918 USD$2,202,671  USD$1,938,041 USD$2,56,435
Curling USD$570,988 USD$777,081 USD$892,886  USD$962,097 USD$847,292
Figure Skating USD$866,996 USD$842,486 USD$930,828 USD$1,026,507  USD$993,897
Ice Hockey  USD$1,195,949  USD$1,801,387  USD$1,968,273  USD$1,854,943 USD$1,609,869
Luge USD$669,922  USD$704,950  USD$690,963  USD$620,000 USD$798,743
Ski & Snowboard USD$3,451,213  USD$4,318,298 USD$4,736,162  USD$4,560,500 USD$4,532,500
Speed Skating USD$2,521,497 USD$2,724,345 USD$2,656,552  USD$2,541,561 USD$2,259,032
 

Table 7: USOC Non-Olympic Sports Funding 

Sport 2011 2012  2013 2014  2015 
Racquetball USD$20,380 USD$21,347 USD$54,022  USD53,418  USD$53,646
Roller Sports USD$26,397 USD$36,528 USD$59,012  USD$60,489  USD$51,225
Softball USD$85,492 USD$95,587 USD$82,293
 USD$384,418  USD$305,156
[Source: USOC Tax Return Disclosures]  

Operating Approach

  • USOC is responsible for Olympic and Paralympic sports
  • USOC has established three main training centres for Olympic and Paralympic sports
  • USOC funds NGB's annually. NGB's funding levels appear to increase in the year of the Olympics/Paralympic Games.
  • The NCAA system develops Olympic athletes across many sports including athletics, gymnastics, swimming and rowing. 
  • Sports science and medicine services are delivered by the USOC and in partnership with a number of universities. 

Direct athlete assistance 

Table 8: USOC Direct Athlete Assistance Grants (2012-2015)

Type 2012 2013             2014

 2015

No of Athletes Amount No of Athletes Amount  No of Athletes  Amount  No of Athletes  Amount
Athlete Performance Pool 1662 USD$11,424,639 1675 USD$12,745,128  1783 USD$12,212,780   1629  USD$13,418,878
Elite Athlete Health Insurance 1148 USD$5,121,131 1622 USD$6,162,027  1688  USD$7,936,619  1736  USD$8,043,560
Operation Gold 483 USD$6,032,750 541 USD$1,826,500  497  USD$2,230,400  619  USD$2,115,300
Tuition Assistance 171 USD$505,221 186 USD$1,146,997  64  USD$1,429,472  189  USD$1,443,884
Total   USD$23,083,741   USD$21,880,653    USD$23,809,271    USD$25,021,622
[Source: USOC Tax Disclosures]
  • USOC's Elite Athlete Health Insurance program provides a level of base support by offering health and medical insurance to help minimize out-of-pocket expenses incurred by insured athletes for costs of medical care. The USOC gives each National Governing Body a guaranteed number of EAHI slots to distribute to its elite athletes. Distribution of EAHI slots is based on criteria established by the NGB and approved by the USOC. Athlete stipends and medical stipends are processed by the USOC once athletes have completed the necessary paperwork (see processing details below).
  • Operation Gold is a program that awards cash to athletes who finish on the podium at Olympic Games, Paralympics Games and Woeld Championships. USOC Operation Gold grants  from 2017 will be:
    • Olympic Games - $37,500 for each gold medal, $22,500 for silver and $15,000 for bronze
    • Paralympic Games - $7,500 for gold each gold medal, $5,250 for silver and $3,750 for bronze

High performance centres

The USOC  has established three Olympic Training Centres along with 18 Olympic 'Team USA' Training Sites located throughout the US. Several of these centres are designated for Paralympic sports.

  • In 2014, Olympic Training Sites were attended by 513 athletes (comprising 32,130 elite training days and 37,608 development training days).
  • In 2014, Olympic Training Site investment was reported to be USD $12,201,877.
  • From 2006 to present, Olympic Training Site investment is reported to be over USD $60,225,698. 

[Source: US Olympic and Paralympic Training Site Factsheet 2015-16]

Table 9: USOC Olympic Training Facilities

Type Name Sports
USOC Olympic Training Centres Colorado Springs Residential sports - boxing, paralympic cycling, fencing, gymnastics (men's) , paralympic judo, modern pentathlon, shooting (Olympic and Paralympic), Paralympic swimming, triathlon, weightlifting and wrestling
  Chula Vista  Archery, beach volleyball, BMX, canoe/kayak, cycling, field hockey, rowing, rugby, soccer, tennis, track & field, triathlon, and cross-training abilities for various winter sports
  Lake Placid Biathlon, bobsled & skeleton, figure skating, hockey, luge, ski & snowboard and speed skating are the most frequent sports to train on complex. Other sports training at the center include boxing, canoe and kayak, judo, rowing, synchronized swimming, team handball, water polo and wrestling
USOC Olympic Training Sites Anschutz Southern Sports Complex Track cycling
  Auburn University  Team handball
  East Tennessee State University Bobsleigh/skelton, canoe/kayak slalom, weightlifting
  University of Illinois  Paralympic sports - wheelchair racing
  Lakeshore Foundation Paralympic sports - wheelchair basketball, goalball, wheelchair rugby
  Northern Michigan University Wrestling, weightlifting
  Oklahoma City Boathouse Foundation Rowing, canoeing
  The Pettit National Ice Center Long track speed skating
  Princeton National Rowing Association Rowing
  SPIRE Institute Wrestling, Paralympic sports - wheelchair basketball and athletics
  Sun Valley Ski Education Foundation Nordic skiing  - Olympic and Paralympic, Alpine skiing, Freestyle skiing, Snowboarding
  University of Central Oklahoma Paralympic - Powerlifting  and Sitting Volleyball
  USA Gymnastics National Team Training Center at Karolyi Ranch Gymnastics - Artistic, Rhythmic and Trampoline
  National Whitewater Center Slalom canoeing
  U.S. Sailing Center Sailing
  Utah Olympic Legacy Foundation Bobsled, luge, ski jumping and speed skating
  World Arena Ice Hall Ice skating

 A full list of Team USA Olympic Training Sites (www.teamusa.org/About-the-USOC/Training-Centers-and-Sites/Training-Sites)


Pathway program


Coaching and leadership development

  • USOC Coaching Education Department  supports NGB's by providing cutting-edge information and training opportunities to help direct Team USA athletes to national and international success.  USOC operates the Complies with National Standards (CNS) Program to ensure quality, comprehensive training for all Team USA athletes.

Athlete Career and Education

  • USOC works with sponsors Adecco and DeVry University to create educational and career resources.

Sports science, medicine and technology   

  • USOC's Performance Division delivers focused, applied and performance-impacting sport science, technology and medical services to America’s top coaches and athletes.
  • The Paralympic Research & Sports Science Consortium is dedicated to promoting and supporting Paralympic research and sport science through collaborative study.The charter Consortium members are the University of Pittsburgh Human Engineering Research Laboratory, The National Center on Physical Activity and Disability at University of Illinois Chicago, the University of Central Oklahoma, Lakeshore Foundation and the Paralympic Division of the United States Olympic Committee.
  • The USOC Sports Medicine staff is comprised of chiropractors, physical therapists and athletic trainers who are responsible for the delivery of health care to athletes participating in U.S. Olympic Training Center programs. National Medical Network - The NMN provides medical care to athletes through partnerships with top-tier medical providers that have proven expertise in sports medicine 


Results and statistics 

Olympic Games Medal Reports - Podium and Top 8 Placings (Gracenote)

Table 10: Summer Olympic Games (2000-2016) Medal Analysis

  Sydney 2000  Athens 2004  Beijing 2008  London 2012  Rio 2016

Gold medal rank

1st 1st 2nd 1st  1st

Medals

Gold - 37
Silver - 24
Bronze - 32
Total - 93

Gold - 36
Silver - 39
Bronze - 26
Total - 101

Gold -36
Silver - 38
Bronze - 36
Total - 110

Gold - 46
Silver - 28
Bronze - 29
Total - 103

 Gold - 46
Silver - 37
Bronze - 38
Total - 121

No. sports medalled in

22 22 20 18  22

No. multi-medal sports

13 15 15 14  16
Archery  0 - 1 - 1 = 2      0 - 1 - 0 = 1  0 - 1 - 1 = 2
Athletics  7 - 4 - 5 = 16  9 - 11 - 5 = 25  7 - 9 - 7 = 23  9 - 12 - 7 = 30  13 - 10 - 9 = 32
Badminton  -  -  -
Baseball  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  n/a  n/a
Basketball  2 - 0 - 0 = 2  1 - 0 - 1 = 2  2 - 0 - 0 = 2  2 - 0 - 0 = 2  2 - 0 - 0 = 2
Boxing 0 - 2 - 2 = 4 1 - 0 - 1 = 2  0 - 0 - 1 = 1 1 - 0 - 1 = 2  1 - 1 - 1 = 3
Canoeing -  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  - -  -
Cycling  1 - 1 - 0 = 2 0 - 2 - 0 = 2  1 - 1 - 3 = 5  1 - 2 - 1 = 4  2 - 3 - 0 = 5
Diving  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  -  1 - 1 - 2 = 4  0 - 2 - 1 = 3
Equestrian 1 - 0 - 2 = 3  1 - 2 - 2 = 5  1 - 1 - 1 = 3  0 - 1 - 2 = 3
Fencing    1 - 0 - 1 = 2  1 - 3 - 2 = 6  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 2 - 2 = 4
Football  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  -
Gymnastics  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  2 - 6 - 1 = 9  2 - 6 - 2 = 10  3 - 1 - 2 = 6  4 - 6 - 2 = 12
Hockey  -  -  -  -  -
Judo  -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  1 - 0 - 1 = 2  1 - 1 - 0 = 2
Modern Pentathlon 0 - 1 - 0 = 1  -  -  -
Rowing  0 - 1 - 2 = 3  1 - 1 - 0 = 2 1 - 1 - 1 = 3  1 - 0 - 2 = 3  1 - 1 - 0 = 2
Sailing  1 - 2 - 1 = 4  1 - 1 - 0 = 2  1 - 1 - 0 = 2  0 - 1 - 1 = 2
Shooting  1 - 0 - 2 = 3  2 - 1 - 0 = 3  2 - 2 - 2 = 6 3 - 0 - 1 = 4  1 - 0 - 2 = 3
Softball  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  n/a  n/a
Swimming 14 - 8 - 11 = 33   12 - 9 - 7 = 28  12 - 9 - 10 = 31  16 - 9 - 6 = 31  16 - 9 - 9 = 33
Syncronised Swimming  -  0 - 0 - 2 = 2  -  -
Tennis  2 - 0 - 1 = 3  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 1 = 2 3 - 0 - 1 = 4  1 - 1 - 1 = 3
Taekwondo  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 1 - 0 = 2  0 - 1 - 2 = 3  0 - 0 - 2 = 2  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Triathlon  -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  -  -  1 - 0 - 0 = 1
Volleyball  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 1 = 2  3 - 1 - 0 = 4  1 - 2 - 0 = 3  0 - 0 - 3 = 3
Water Polo  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 2 - 0 = 2  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1
Weightlifting  1 - 0 - 1 = 2  -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Wrestling  2 - 2 - 3 = 7  1 - 3 - 2 = 6  1 - 0 - 2 = 3  2 - 0 - 2 = 4  2 - 0 - 1 = 3

Table 11: Winter Olympic Games (2002-2014) Medal Analysis 

Salt Lake 2002 Torino 2006 Vancouver 2010

Sochi 2014

Gold medal rank

3 2 3 4

Medals

Gold - 10
Silver - 13
Bronze - 11
Total - 34

Gold - 9
Silver - 9
Bronze - 7
Total - 25

Gold - 9
Silver - 15
Bronze - 13
Total - 37

Gold - 9
Silver - 7
Bronze - 12
Total - 28

Number of sport medals won

10 9 9 9

Number of sports two or more medal won (multi-medal)

9 5 8 6
Alpine Skiing   0 - 2 - 0 = 2  2 - 0 - 0 =2  2 - 3 - 3 = 8  2 - 1 - 2 = 5
Bobsleigh   1 - 1 - 1 = 3  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 1 = 2  0 - 1 - 3 = 4
Cross Country Skiing  -  -
Curling    0 - 0 - 1 = 1  -
Figure Skating   1- -0 - 2 = 3  0 - 2 - 0 = 2  1 - 1 - 0 = 2  1 - 0 - 1 = 2
Freestyle Skiing   0 - 3 - 0 = 3  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  1 - 1 - 2 = 4  3 - 2 - 2 = 7
Ice Hockey  0 - 2 - 0 = 2  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 2 - 0 = 2  0 - 1 - 0 = 1
Luge   0 - 1 - 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Nordic Combined  1 - 3 - 0 = 4
Short Track Skating   1 - 1 - 1 = 3  1 - 0 - 2 = 3  0 - 2 - 4 = 6  0 - 1 - 0 = 1
Skeleton   2 - 1 - 0 = 3  0 - 1 - 1 = 2
Snowboarding   2 - 1 - 2 = 5  3 - 3 - 1 = 7  2 - 1 - 2 = 5  3 - 0 - 2 = 5
Speed Skating   3 - 1 - 4 = 8  3 - 3 - 1 = 7  1 - 2 - 1 = 4

 Paralympic Games Medal Reports - Podium and Top 8 Placings (Gracenote)

Table 12: Summer Paralympic Games (2000-2016) Medal Analysis

  Sydney 2000 Athens 2004 Beijing 2008  London 2012  Rio 2016

Gold medal rank

5th 4th 3rd 6th  4th

Medals

Gold - 36
Silver - 39
Bronze - 34
Total - 109

Gold - 27
Silver - 22
Bronze -39
Total - 88

Gold - 36
Silver - 35
Bronze - 28
Total - 99
Gold - 31
Silver - 29
Bronze - 28
Total - 98
 Gold - 40
Silver - 44
Bronze - 31
Total - 115

No. sports medalled in

10 15

12

11  14

No. multi-medal sports

6 9 7 5  8
Archery  - 0 - 0 - 2 = 2  0 - 0 - 2 = 2  1 - 1 - 0 = 2  1 - 0 - 0 = 1
Athletics  14 - 15 - 40 = 49 7 - 8 - 11 = 26

 9 - 14 - 5 = 28

9 - 6 - 13 = 28  16 - 15 - 11 = 42
Basketball (Wheelchair)  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  2 - 0 - 0 = 2
Boccia  -  -  -  -  -
Canoeing  n/a n/a  n/a n/a  -
Cycling 3 - 4 - 2 = 6  2 - 4 - 3 = 9 5 - 5 - 4 = 14  6 - 5 - 6 = 17  4 - 9 - 5 = 18
Equestrian -  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  - -  -
Goalball  -  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 1 - 1 = 2
Fencing (Wheelchair)  -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  -
Judo  2 - 1 - 1 = 4  0 - 1 - 2 = 3  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 1 - 1 = 1  0 - 0 - 2 = 2
Powerlifting  1 - 1 - 0 = 2  - -  -
Rowing n/a  n/a   0 - 1 - 1 = 2  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 1 - 0 = 1
Sailing  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  1 - 0 - 1 = 2 0 - 1 - 0 = 1  0 - 1 - 0 = 1
Shooting  -  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  - -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Swimming  15 - 17 - 7 = 39  16 - 4 - 15 = 35  17 - 14 - 13 = 44  14 - 13 - 14 = 41  14 - 14 - 9 = 37
Table tennis 0 - 0 - 1 = 1 0 - 0 - 1 = 1  -  -
Tennis (Wheelchair)  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  1 - 1 - 0 = 2 1 - 0 - 1 = 2  1 - 1 - 1 = 3  0 - 1 - 1 = 2
Triathlon n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a   2 - 1 - 1 = 4
Volleyball  -  0 - 0 -  1 = 1 0 - 1 - 0 = 1   0 - 1 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1
Wheelchair rugby  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 1 - 0 = 1

n/a - not on Paralympic program 

Table 13: Winter Paralympic Games (2002-2014) Medal Analysis

Salt Lake 2002 Torino 2006 Vancouver 2010

Sochi 2014

Gold medal rank

2 5 6 8

Medals

Gold - 10
Silver - 22
Bronze - 11
Total - 43

Gold - 7
Silver - 2
Bronze - 3
Total - 12

Gold - 4
Silver - 5
Bronze - 4
Total - 13

Gold - 2
Silver - 7
Bronze - 9
Total - 18

Number of sport medals won

3 3 3 3

Number of sports two or more medal won (multi-medal)

2 2 1 2
Alpine skiing  9 - 17 - 11 = 37  5 - 2 - 1 = 8  3 - 5 - 3 = 11  1 - 5 - 8 = 14 
Biathlon  - -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Cross country skiing  0 - 5 - 0 = 5  2 - 0 - 1 = 3  0 - 2 - 1 = 3
Curling  -  -
Ice sledge hockey  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1

Competitive Intelligence

Secure Access: If you can see this message, you have been granted access to a highly secure section of this web page. Please manage the following information as a business in-confidence resource. All enquiries concerning permissions and access control to this information should be directed to the National Sport Information Centre/Clearinghouse for Sport, Australian Sports Commission.


The information presented within this secure section is  currently being assembled. Unless otherwise indicated, much of this content is yet to be properly evaluated and assessed for its currency and accuracy. Alerts updating users of new content additions or changes to the information provided will be posted on the ‘Performance Intelligence Network’ email distribution list (PERFORMANCE-INTELLIGENCE-NETWORK@LISTSERV.AUSPORT.GOV.AU). If you wish to be added to this network, please contact: Gavin.Reynolds@ausport.gov.au (NSIC/Clearinghouse).

International networking

  • The ASC's principal sport information contact on the ground in United States is 

Results analysis

  • Detailed sports reports pending

System strengths

  • High number of elite athletes in the system.
  • NCAA system supports the development of athletes.
  • Large number of high calibre coaches. Limited use of international coaches is sports such as athletics and swimming.

 System weaknesses

  • USOC funding dependent on private sector. This can decline in adverse economic conditions such as the GFC.
  • USOC relies on NCAA system in developing athletes.
  • Professional sports can impact on the availability of athletes fort the Olympics.
  • Paralympic sports do not appear to be supported as strongly as Olympic sports.

Relevance to Australian Environment

  • USOC plays a similar role to the AIS in terms of funding NGB's, national training centre and sports science and medicine support.
  • USOC services are distributed through a range of facilities and organisations.

Miscellaneous information resources


Please note - End of secure web page section


Further resources and reading

Websites

Resources

Articles

  • United States by J. Ruseski and N. Razavilar In Comparative sport development : systems, participation and public policy. ed. K. Petry and K. Hallmann, New York, Springer, 2013 , 311-322

Videos

 



Is this information complete? 

The Clearinghouse for Sport is a sector-wide knowledge sharing initiative, and as such your contributions are encouraged and appreciated. If you would like to suggest a resource, submit a publication, or provide feedback on this topic, please contact us.
Alternatively, if you would like to be kept up to date with research and information published about this topic, please request a research profile setup.