China

The information presented below is currently being assembled. Unless otherwise indicated, much of this content is yet to be properly evaluated and assessed for its currency and accuracy. As such, access to this information has been limited to a select audience. Please refer to the Clearinghouse for Sport Disclaimer page for more information concerning this content.

 

China FlagPrepared by: Greg Blood, Emeritus Researcher, Australian Institute of Sport
Updated by:               September 2016                                                                                                                    
Reviewed by:                                                                                                         
Scheduled release



Index of content:


Introduction

Table 1: Key national performance metrics

Population Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Summer Olympic
Gold Medal Ranking (2016)

Winter Olympic 
Gold Medal Ranking (2014)
Summer Paralympic Gold Medal Ranking (2016) Winter Paralympic Gold Medal Ranking (2014) Asian Games
(2014)
 
1.351 billion 8.227 trillion USD (2012) 3rd 12th 1st -  1st

 


Sport structure and governance

Government   

  • China’s General Administration of Sport (GAS) - is a powerful, centralised and hierarchical organisation that directly supervises 37 provincial and regional sport administration committees and 53 sports management centres.

Structure

  • China operates a state sponsored and centralised sports system. The sport system in China is funded and coordinated by its Central Government through the General Administration of Sports of China (GAS). The GAS is responsible for the formulation of sports policy, coordination and planning, and delivery of all sport in China, including the high performance sport system and community sport (or mass sport) sector. The GAS leads and works very closely with a number of subordinate agencies including the Chinese Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee of China. 

Funding to Sport

The three main sources of income supporting the Chinese sport system are: i) the government sport budget (including national and provincial levels); ii) commercial/sponsorship income; and iii) lottery funding. The government sport budget is still the main resource for subsidising the sport system, especially in supporting the personnel expenses of sport organisations and institutions and promoting Olympic success.

Table 2: Sports Funding

Organisation Year 

Federal Government

Sports Lottery Total 
China’s General Administration of Sport 2016 2.633 billion CNY 345 million CNY 2.978 billion CNY

Funding of Chinese national sports federations or national sports organisation (NSOs) is based on annual cycles, using a formula approach based on the sports’ plans, particularly the proposed programs of the elite national senior teams. The major work of NSOs is focussed on identifying and developing athletes for international competition.

The amount of funding received by each sport relates to parameters such as:

  • Number of athletes in national program
  • Number of training days
  • Competition program

Broadly speaking, Olympic and Paralympic sports receive up to 90% of their funding from Government, with the remaining funds coming from sponsors and other marketing sources including TV rights. The difference in funding of individual sports is related to the sport’s capacity to generate external revenue sources. For example, men's football is the highest (or most lucratively) funded sport, based on its capacity to generate higher levels of sponsor support and TV rights payments.


High performance system 

High Performance Organisations 

Performance Targets

Olympic Glorious Program 2011-2020 set the following performance targets:

  • 2016 Summer Olympics - keep the number of gold medals and medals ranking, maintain and expand the number of new advantages of the project, the potential advantages of the project to achieve greater breakthroughs; infrastructure projects continue to raise the level to further strengthen the overall competitiveness; narrow and Collective Ball the gap between the world's advanced level of individual projects to achieve a breakthrough.
  • 2018 Winter Olympics - to achieve athletic performance steadily, and strive to achieve a breakthrough on the basis of large items into the forefront of the medals table.
  • 2020 Summer Olympics - keep the number of gold medals and medals lead, gold and medals significant improvement in the structure of the latent advantages of the project, the basis of the number of gold medals and medals proportion of the total number of gold medals improved significantly; significantly

Funding to high performance sport 

China’s General Administration of Sport (CGAS)

Table 3: Major expenditures from GAS to High Performance Sport 

Area Year Amount
Science and Technology Research 2016 62.3 m CNY 
Sports Programs 2016 756.5 m CNY 
Competitions 2016 281.6m  CNY 
Training 2016 931.4 m CNY
Facilities 2016 810.4 m CNY 
Exchange and Cooperation 2016 347.2 m CNY
Other 2016 376.4 m CNY
Other - Culture, Sport and Media 2016 3.7 m CNY

 [Source: CGAS Budget 2016 - in Chinese]

Operational Approach

  • Elite sport policy is known as 'Juguo Tizhi' - translates to 'whole country supports the elite sport policy and system'.
  • GAS is the dominant organisation with the primary goal of  Olympic glory. Olympic Glorious Program 2011-2020
  • GAS sets medal quotas for each of the 16 National Sport Management Centre's (NSMCs) working with Olympic Sports.
  • Each NSMCs is responsible for up to three Olympic sports and they oversee and manage the training and monitoring of national teams.
  • At the provincial level there are also sport bureaus and sport management centres with responsibility for producing elite athletes for selection into the national squads.  For example, in Shandong Province, there are 12 provincial sport management centres for sports such as rack and field athletics and swimming, and these centres aim to develop potential medallists in the National Games and the Olympics.
  • There are more than 3,000 government-run sports schools, 20 major programs and 200 smaller programs. These schools and programs have produced nearly all of China’s Olympics athletes. About 400,000 students were enrolled in sports schools (2005)
  • The Chinese high performance sport system is comprised of large athlete numbers - approximately 20,000 full time, salaried elite athletes – based in more than 50 provincial sports institutes and a number of national training centres. The elite athlete population also draws on new and emeging talent from over 3,000 dedicated sports schools.
  • Typically, National Team athletes spend a proportion of their year training full time with the National Team. 12 National Teams from 9 sports are based at the National Training Centre in Beijing.There is some targeting in specific sports, e.g. swimming targets specific events such as breaststroke, by setting higher standards for selection to the national team in targeted events. Selection of targeted events is also based on the perceived opportunity to achieve medal success.
  • Tennis appears a sport on the rise in China. With medals in the past 2 Olympics already achieved, the Chinese Tennis Association appears to enjoy good corporate support, e.g. there are current plans for a large tennis school in Shanghai, which will have 50 courts and cater for 3000 students. A bottom up approach is taken to development with mini tennis being introduced to kindergarten (pre school) across the country
  • In addition to centrally coordinated National Leagues or Grand Prix in most sports the GAS also organizes two major multi sports events – the National Games and the City Games - on 4 year cycles 

Direct athlete assistance 

Over 20,000 elite athletes are salaried at provincial level. Salaries vary from region to region but are standard across sports in each region. Salaries are at the level of an average worker, but athletes have no expenses for accommodation, food or transport.

In some sports which have professional leagues, e.g. football, salaries are paid directly by the club.

For national team athletes, salaries are still paid by the province, with a top-up for national team status. The Federal Government through the GAS covers all expenses for accommodation, food and travel.

Medal Incentive payments are made for medals at Olympic Games. The Federal Government provides the following one off payments for Olympic medals:

  • Gold US$25,000
  • Silver US$15,000
  • Bronze US$10,000

Additional incentive payments are made by provincial governments and sponsors.

All athletes must study, and following their athletic career, depending on the level attained may be funded for further study.

Shi Cha Hai Sports School was established in 1958 and is one of 5 sports schools supported by Beijing local government. There are more than 3000 in China.

High performance centres 

After the Beijing Games, the Chinese government announced that it would establish 8–10 world class comprehensive and 8–10 specialised training camps, which would integrate training, science and technology, medical science and education (GAS, 2011).

Table 4: High performance centres

Type Name Sports
HPM Centres  National Sports Training Center - Beijing Permanent - Gymnastics, Swimming, Basketball, Voleyball, Badmington, Table Tennis, Weightlifting ,Golf, Track and Field
Qiandao Lake Canoeing & rowing training camp - Zhejiang Province  Canoeing, Rowing
Jinjiang Badminton Training Base -  Fujian Province  Badminton
Zhangzhou China Women Volleyball training camp - Fujian  Volleyball
Duoba AltitudeTraining Complex - Qinghai Province - Altitude  
Hongta Soccer Training Base - Yunnan Province  Football
Zhengding National Table Tennis Training Camp - Hebei Province  Table Tennis
Jiangmen Tennis - Guangdong  Tennis

  


Pathway program

  • Chinese Talent Development System Diagram
  • Chinese government initially used  the Soviet model for identifying talented performers.
  • Children from ages 8 to 13 were tested, and select candidates for sports schools.
  • Doctors measured height, arm span, bone density, flexibility and other things to predict what a child will be like in the future. X-rays and bone tests are used to determine bone density and structure and predict future growth.
  • Children demonstrating exceptional flexibility and balance were sent to gymnastics and diving camps. Tall children are sent to volleyball and basketball camps. Those with quick reflex are guided into ping pong. Kids with long arms are pushed into swimming or javelin throwing. Those with shorts arms make ideal weightlifters.
  • Current features include:
    • Introduction of grassroots and professional clubs,
    • Targeting of key sport schools and sport colleges in the selection system
    • Introduction of two national-level squads - national squads and Olympic squads

Coaching and leadership development 

  • To increase the number of world-class coaches GAS initiated a training project for young talented coaches in 1999 and sent national coaches abroad to gather knowledge from the west, especially the United States.
  • In 2004, the government announced a target to produce 100 elite coaches to prepare for the 2008 Olympics and highlighted ‘the need to send more coaches to be trained in other countries to raise the quality of sport training’ 
  • GAS also imported elite foreign coaches. In 2006, one third of those who were taking the position of head coach in national squads were foreign’. (Tan 2012)

Sports science, medicine and technology    

  • In 2003, the GAS issued ‘The Science & Technology (S&T) Action Project for Olympic Glory’  required that each NSMC establish a new division of performance to coordinate coaches, scientists (physiologists, psychologists, nutritionists, therapists) and doctors to provide the optimal service for athletes preparation for the Olympics. Each NSMC was required to establish and develop its own scientific service programmes coordinated primarily by the director of performance in each NSMC.
  • GAS has set up six national specialised laboratories, (for the monitoring of training, sport psychology, sport medicine, sport nutrition, sport information, and physical training and recovery), and organised a top-level scientific team of 30 of the country’s experts to help national squads solve critical problems involved in the “science” of elite sport development.


Results and statistics 

Olympic Games Medal Reports - Podium and Top 8 Placings (Infostrada)

 Table 5: Summer Olympic Games (2000-2016) Medal Analysis

  Sydney 2000  Athens 2004  Beijing 2008  London 2012  Rio 2016 

Gold medal rank

3rd 2nd 1st 2nd  3rd

Medals

Gold - 28
Silver - 16
Bronze - 14
Total - 58

Gold - 32
Silver - 17
Bronze - 14
Total - 63

Gold -51
Silver - 21
Bronze - 28
Total - 100

Gold - 38
Silver - 27
Bronze - 23
Total - 88

 Gold - 26
Silver - 18
Bronze - 26
Total - 70

No. sports medalled in

12 19 23  19  19

No. multi-medal sports

8 11 17  15  15
Archery  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  1 - 1 - 1 = 3  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  -
Athletics  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  2 - 0 - 0 = 2  0 - 0 - 2 = 2  1 - 0 - 5 = 6  2 - 2 - 2 = 6
Badminton  4 - 1 - 3 = 8  3 - 1 - 1 = 5  3 - 2 - 3 = 8  5 - 2 - 1 = 8  2 - 0 - 1 = 3
Boxing - 0 - 0 - 1 = 1  2 - 1 - 1 = 4 1 - 1 - 1 = 3  0 - 1 - 3 = 4
Canoeing -  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1 -  -
Cycling 0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 2 - 1 = 3  1 - 0 - 0 = 1
Diving  5 - 5 - 0 = 10 6 - 2 - 1 = 9   7 - 1 - 3 = 11  6 - 3 - 1 = 10  7 - 2 - 1 = 10
Equestrian -  -  -
Fencing  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  0 - 3 - 0 = 3  1 - 1 - 0 = 2  2 - 0 - 1 = 3  0 - 1 - 1 = 2
Football  -  -  -  -
Golf  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Gymnastics  3 - 2 - 2 = 7  1 - 0 - 3 = 4  11 - 2 - 5 = 18  5 - 4 - 2 = 11  0 - 1 - 4 = 5
Hockey      0 - 1 - 0 = 1  -
Judo  2 - 1 - 1 = 4  1 - 1 - 3 = 5  3 - 0 - 1 = 4  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  0 - 0 - 2 = 2
Modern Pentathlon -    0 - 1 - 0 = 1  -
Rowing  - 1 - 1 - 0 = 2  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 2 = 2
Sailing  -  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 1 = 2  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 1 - 0 = 1
Shooting  3 - 2 - 3 = 8 4 - 2 - 3 = 9   5 - 2 - 1 = 8 2 - 2 - 3 = 7  1 - 2 - 4 = 7
Softball  -  n/a
Swimming  -  1 - 1 - 0 = 2  1 - 3 - 2 = 6  5 - 2 - 3 = 10  1 - 2 - 3 = 6
Synchronised Swimming  -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  0 - 2 - 0 = 2
Table Tennis  4 - 3 - 1 = 8  3 - 1 - 2 = 6  4 - 2 - 2 = 8  4 - 2 - 0 = 6  4 - 2 - 0 = 6
Tennis  -  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1 -  -
Taekwondo 1 - 0 - 0 = 1   2 - 0 - 0 = 2  1 - 0 - 1 = 1  1 - 1 - 1 = 3  2 - 0 - 0 = 2
Triathlon  -  -  -  -
Volleyball  -  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 1 - 2 = 3  1 - 0 - 0 = 1
Weightlifting  5 - 1 - 1 = 7  5 - 3 - 0 = 8  8 - 1 - 0 = 9  5 - 2 - 0 = 7  5 - 0 - 2 = 7
Wrestling  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 2 - 0 = 3  0 - 1- 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 2 = 2

n/a - not on Olympic program 

Table 6: Winter Olympic Games (2002-2014) Medal Analysis 

Salt Lake 2002 Torino 2006 Vancouver 2010

Sochi   2014

Gold medal rank

13th 14th 7th 12th

Medals

Gold - 2
Silver - 2
Bronze - 4
Total - 8

Gold - 2
Silver - 4
Bronze - 5
Total - 11

Gold - 5
Silver - 2
Bronze - 4
Total - 11

Gold -3 
Silver - 4
Bronze - 2
Total -9

Number of sport medals won

2 4 5 3

Number of sports two or more medal won (multi-medal)

1 4 3 2
Curling  -  -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  -
Figure Skating  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  1 - 1 - 0 = 2   0 - 1 - 1 = 2
Freestyle skiing  -  1 - 1 - 0 = 2  0 - 1 - 2 =3  -
Short Track Skating  2 - 2 - 3 = 7  1 - 1 - 3 = 5  4 - 0 - 0 = 4  2 - 3 - 1 = 6
Speed Skating  -  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1 

Paralympic Games Medal Reports - Podium and Top 8 Placings (Infostrada)

Table 7: Summer Paralympic Games (2000-2016) Medal Analysis

  Sydney 2000  Athens 2004  Beijing 2008  London 2012  Rio 2016 

Gold medal rank

6th 1st 1st 1st  1st

Medals

Gold - 34
Silver - 22
Bronze - 17
Total - 73

Gold -63
Silver - 46
Bronze - 32
Total - 141

Gold -89
Silver -70
Bronze -52
Total - 211

Gold - 95
Silver - 71
Bronze - 65
Total - 231

 Gold - 107
Silver - 81
Bronze - 51
Total - 239

No. sports medalled in

6 10

 12 

13  13

No. multi-medal sports

6 7 10 11  10
Archery  - 1 - 0 - 0 = 1  2 - 3 - 2 = 7  1 - 1 - 2 = 4  3 - 2 - 0 = 5
Athletics  11 - 10 - 7 = 28 25 - 20 - 13 = 58

 38 - 21 - 18 = 77

33 - 29 - 24 = 86  32 - 23 -12 = 67
Basketball (Wheelchair)  -    -
Boccia  -  0 - 3 - 0 = 3  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Canoeing  n/a  n/a n/a n/a  -
Cycling -  1 - 1 - 1 = 3 0 - 3 - 4 = 7  6 - 4 - 5 = 15  3 - 3 - 4 = 10
Equestrian - -  -
Fencing (Wheelchair)  1 - 1 - 1 = 3  6 - 6 - 1 = 13  6 - 3 - 1 = 10  9 - 4 - 4 = 17
Goalball  1 - 1 - 0 = 2  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  0 - 1 - 0 = 1
Judo  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  2 - 1 - 2 = 5  4 - 2 - 1 = 7  1 - 5 - 1 = 7  2 - 0 - 0 = 2
Powerlifting  5 - 2 - 3 = 10  5 - 4 - 6 = 15 9 - 2 - 3 = 14  3 - 6 - 6 = 15  3 - 6 - 3 = 12
Rowing n/a n/a  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  2 - 0 - 0 = 2  0 - 2 - 0 = 2
Sailing  - -  -
Shooting  1 - 2 - 0 = 3  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 3 - 3 = 7 4 - 1 - 3 = 8  5 - 2 - 1 = 8
Swimming  13 - 5 - 5 = 23  19 - 16 - 6 = 41  13 - 22 - 17 = 52  24 - 13 -21 = 58  37 - 30 - 25 = 92
Table tennis 4 - 2 - 1 = 7 7 - 3 - 3 = 13  13 - 6 - 3 = 22  14 - 5 - 2 = 21  13 - 7 - 1 = 21
Tennis (Wheelchair)  - -  -
Triathlon  n/a n/a   n/a n/a   -
Volleyball  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 1 - 0 = 1

Winter Paralympic Games (2002-2014) Medal Analysis

China has participated at the last 4 Winter Games but has not won any medals. 


Competitive Intelligence

Secure Access: If you can see this message, you have been granted access to a highly secure section of this web page. Please manage the following information as a business in-confidence resource. All enquiries concerning permissions and access control to this information should be directed to the National Sport Information Centre/Clearinghouse for Sport, Australian Sports Commission.


The information presented within this secure section is  currently being assembled. Unless otherwise indicated, much of this content is yet to be properly evaluated and assessed for its currency and accuracy. Alerts updating users of new content additions or changes to the information provided will be posted on the ‘Performance Intelligence Network’ email distribution list (PERFORMANCE-INTELLIGENCE-NETWORK@LISTSERV.AUSPORT.GOV.AU). If you wish to be added to this network, please contact:Gavin.Reynolds@ausport.gov.au (NSIC/Clearinghouse).

International networking

  • The ASC's principal sport information contact on the ground in China is  Ms. Li Guihua, Deputy Director-General & Research Professor, China Sport Information Centre (China) Ms. Li Guihua, Deputy Director-General & Research Professor, China Sport Information Centre. 

Memorandum of Understanding

ASC and State General Administration of Sport signed a MOU in January 2005. Key points were:

  • Greater cooperation and communication on international sports issues;
  • Facilitation by both peak bodies of greater direct links between national sporting organisations in Australia and China;
  • Encouragement of more cooperation and exchange between researchers in the fields of sport education, science, research and medicine;
  • A joint commitment to working against doping and violence in sport, including a closer working relationship between the respective anti-doping bodies in both countries;
  • Support for cooperation on training of sports administrators, coaches and athletes.

Results analysis

  • Detailed sports reports pending

System strengths

  • Large population base to select athletes from.

Other observations

  • In January 2015, Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI)  review of GAS  found that chasing 'gold medal supremacy was an issue. As a result of the review, GAS administration vowed to root out the practice of chasing gold medals, and it will assess the performance of the sports administration on multiple criteria, including public participation in sports and cost efficiency of public sports investments. GAS will no longer rank localities for the medals or performance of their athletes in international and national games. Source: Sports authority vows to eradicate "Gold medal supremacy


Please note - End of secure web page section


Further resources and reading

Websites

Articles

  • China by F.Hong In Comparative sport development : systems, participation and public policy. ed. K. Petry and K. Hallmann, New York, Springer, 2013 , 181-192

Videos

 



Is this information complete? 

The Clearinghouse for Sport is a sector-wide knowledge sharing initiative, and as such your contributions are encouraged and appreciated. If you would like to suggest a resource, submit a publication, or provide feedback on this topic, please contact us.
Alternatively, if you would like to be kept up to date with research and information published about this topic, please request a research profile setup.