Canada

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 Canada Flag

Prepared by: Greg Blood, Emeritus Researcher, Australian Institute of Sport
Updated by:  Greg Blood (November 2017)
Reviewed by: International Association for Sports Information (July 2016)
Scheduled release: August 2016

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Index of content:


Introduction

Canada is a leading sport nation. How sport is practiced in Canada today is influenced by a number of factors, including its four seasons, and its geographic and social diversity. For example, lacrosse, Canada's national summer sport, has been played by Aboriginal peoples for close to a thousand years. Hockey, Canada's national winter sport, was invented in Canada in the 1800s, and basketball was invented by Canadian Dr. James Naismith in 1891 to condition young athletes during the winter. Today, soccer is the most popular sport among Canadian children. (Sport in Canada, Sport Canada, 2016: website http://canada.pch.gc.ca/eng/1414151906468).

Table 1: Key national performance metrics - Canada

Population Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2014 Summer Olympic  Gold Medal Ranking (2016) Winter Olympic
Gold Medal Ranking
(
2014)
Summer Paralympic Gold Medal Ranking (2016) Winter Paralympic Gold Medal Ranking (2014) Commonwealth Games
Gold Medal Ranking (2014)
35 million 1.821 trillion 20th 3rd 14th 3rd  3rd

 


Sport Structure and Governance

Government

Structure

  • Canadian sport structure reflects the basic structure of the Canadian Government with national, provincial and local sports organisations. National sports organisations tend to focus on high performance sport. It system is very similar to Australia's sport system. 
  • Sport at the national levels tends to focus on high performance and provincial level on developing young athletes, grassroots sports and participation.

Funding to Sport

Government

Table 2: Peak sport funding agencies and total allocated annual funding

Organisation Year 

Amount

Sport Canada 2017/18 CAN $206,380 m

[Source: Canadian Heritage - Report on Plans and Priorities 2017/18]


Canadian Perspectives on Funding Sports

The latest national public opinion survey (conducted November 11 to 13 2016) by Abacus Data explored public attitudes towards public funding of sports in Canada and interest in the Summer Olympics in Rio. They found:
  • Canadians were generally supportive of public funds being used for a variety of sport initiatives but are more inclined to support initiatives that have the greatest reach and encourage sport participation among Canadians. 
  • 85% believe that spending public money on sport infrastructure for recreational use is a good use (53%) or an acceptable use (32%) of public money. A similar percentage (84%) feel that using public money to promote sport participation among Canadians is a good or acceptable use of public funds.
  • There is also broad public support for using public money to fund sports that compete in major international competitions (80% good use/acceptable use), to fund national sports organisations directly that promote, enhance, and govern sports across Canada (78% good use/ acceptable use), and to support the hosting of major sporting events in Canada (75% good use/acceptable use). 
  • Support for investing in sport infrastructure for high performance athletics or directly supporting high performance athletes to cover living and travel expenses is less enthusiastic but there is little resistance to these uses of public money. In both cases, over two thirds of Canadians think it’s either a good use or an acceptable use of public funds. 
  • Support for funding sport appears to be broad based crossing demographic, regional, and political lines. 
For more information and data tables see the summary report
 

 


High Performance System

Overview 

  • The sport system in Canada comprises a number of organisations that provide sport programs and services at the national, provincial/territorial and municipal.
  • Sport Canada (a branch of the Federal Government, Department of Canadian Heritage) develops national sport policies, allocates funding to sport, and administers and implements national programs such as ‘Own the Podium’ (OTP)
  • Own the Podium (OTP) is a partnership between the major national funding partners for high performance sport in Canada: Sport Canada, the Canadian Olympic Committee and the Canadian Paralympic Committee.
  • The OTP leads the Canadian high performance systems, and prioritises and determines the investment strategies and funding allocations to Olympic and Paralympic sports
  • Approximately 1,800 elite athletes receive financial support.

 High Performance Organisations

  • Own the Podium (OTP) - is a not-for-profit organisation. 
  • Canadian Olympic and Paralympic Sport Institute Network – a national network of eight high performance training centres (or institutes) in each province/territory including Calgary, Montreal, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Atlantic, Quebec, and Pacific. CSC are responsible for facilitating the daily training environment (DTE) for the system. In January 2015, Canadian Olympic Committee, Canadian Paralympic Committee and Canadian Olympic Foundation  contributed $3m of direct investment for the period 2014-2016.
  • Canadian Olympic Committee – National Olympic Committee.
  • Canadian Paralympic Committee – National Paralympic Committee.
  • Coaching Association of Canada – national coach advocacy and coaching accreditation body.

Performance Targets 

  • The OTP has set a target for Canada to finish within the top twelve (12) competing nations at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games based on an overall medal count (i.e. total number of medals won).
  • The OTP has set a target for Canada to finish within the top twelve (12) competing nations at the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games based on the official International Paralympic Committee (IPC) gold medal tally.

Funding to High Performance Sport (Sport Canada) 

Table 3: Sport Canada Funding to High Performance Sport

Type of Assistance Year  Amount
Athlete Assistance 2017/18 CAN $25.9 m
Sport Support Program including Own the Podium (OTP) 2017/8 CAN $151.1m
Hosting Program for Major Sporting Events 2017/18 CAN $28.6 m

[Source: Canadian Heritage - Report on Plans and Priorities 2017/18]

Funding to High Performance Sport (Canadian Paralympic Committee) 

Table 4: Funding to Canadian Paralympic Committee

Organisation 2014  2015
Sport Canada CAN$6,018,930 CAN $5,301,767

[Source- Canadian Paralympic Committee Annual Report]

Table 5: Own the Podium (OTP) Income Sources 

Organisation2013/2014 

2014/15

2015/16 
Sport CanadaCAN $63,597,761CAN $61,100,000  CAN $61,100,000
Canadian Olympic CommitteeCAN $11,667,113CAN $5,097,500 CAN $$5,973,666
Ontario GovernmentCAN $555,000CAN $500,000-
Canadian Paralympic CommitteeCAN $303,794- CAN$$400,000
SponsorshipsCAN $367,477- -
OtherCAN $3,681- -
TotalCAN $76,494,826CAN $66,697,500 CAN$67,173,666

[Source - 2013/14, 2014/15 and 2015/16 OTP Annual Reports] 

Canadian provincial and territorial governments contribute further funding into the system (estimated to be between CAN $30m to $50m). This funding is largely focused toward the CSCs (high performance training centres).

Operating Approach

  • OTP prioritises and determines the investment strategies and funding allocations to Olympic and Paralympic national sporting organisations (NSOs). OTP recommends the sports, events, teams, and athletes to be targeted, and provides advice to Government (Sport Canada) concerning the broader investment strategies to permit NSOs to contribute to the medal targets endorsed by the OTP Board. 
  • OTP funds winter Olympic sports to a relatively high level.  It also provides funding for coaching/technical leadership, training and competitions, sports science and sport medical support, and organisational capability development.
  • Sport Canada (through the OTP) contributes funding to the Canadian Sport Centres (CSCs) network. However, the CSCs are principally funded and operated by their respective provincial and territorial governments.
  •  Federal Government support to the CSCs network is based on the following principles:
    • Services complement and enhance programming for targeted national teams;
    • Services are provided in line with the principles of long-term athlete development;
    • Delivery of core services are of a consistent standard;
    • Services are available to athletes in accordance with their official language needs;
    • Partnerships at both the national and provincial levels are important for the development of a sustainable Canadian sport system; and
    • Support is provided for only one CSC per province or region of provinces/territories.
  • OTP funds sports science/medicine research
  • Sport Canada provides funding for the bidding and hosting of significant sporting events including the ‘Canada Games’ and the 2015 Pan Am Games in Toronto.

Direct Athlete Assistance 

Athlete Assistance Program (AAP) - In 2016/17, CAN $29.2 million in funding goes directly to approximately 1800 athletes, giving them financial assistance to pursue world-class results while achieving their academic and career goals.

Taxation Assistance - An amateur athlete who is a member of a registered Canadian amateur athletic association and is eligible to compete in international sporting events as a Canadian national team member is permitted to place certain income received in connection with their participation in these events in an arrangement known as an amateur athlete trust. Income contributed to an amateur athlete trust, as well as the investment income earned in the trust, benefits from a deferral of tax for up to eight years after an athlete ceases competing as a Canadian national team member. 

Canadian Sport Centres - Own the Podium Performance Partners

The Canadian Sport Institute (CSI) Network consists of three (3) Canadian Sport Institutes (Pacific, Calgary and Quebec) and four (4) Canadian Sport Centres (Ontario, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Atlantic).

Own the Podium provides Federal Government funding. CSI Network members apply for funding from five envelopes: Sport Science/Sport Medicine Support, CSI Enhanced Support, Incremental Operational Support, Canadian Sport Institute Programs, and Research and Innovation.

Table 10: Canadian Sports Centres - Funding and Sports

Name OTP Funding 2015/16 Sports
Canadian Sport Centre Atlantic CAN $558,941  Canoe/Kayak, Sailing
Institut National du sport du uébec  CAN $3,298,149 Diving, Swimming, Syncro Swimming, Water Polo, Speed Skating, Judo, Fencing, Gymnastics
Canadian Sport Institute Ontario  CAN $2,258,890 Archery, Athletics, Canoe/Kayak, Cycling, Figure Skating, Goalball, Gymnastics,Trampoline, Para Athletics, Rowing, Sailing, Swimming, Wheelchair Basketball, Women’s Hockey
Canadian Sport Centre Manitoba  CAN $404,250  
Canadian Sport Centre Saskatchewan  CAN $297,420  
Canadian Sport Institute Calgary  CAN $4,112,600  
Canadian Sport Institute Pacific  CAN $4,143,876 Cycling, Rowing, Swimming, Moguls, Luge
Total  CAN $15,074,126  

[Source Own the Podium website June 2016]


Pathway Program

Own the Podium is developing a national plan and framework for High Performance Athlete Development (HPAD). The approach to HPAD will focus on the key concepts of Gold Medal Profiles and Podium Pathways for targeted sports based on sport specific requirements for podium success.

Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model, a Canadian initiative, provides the framework for Canada's, NSO and PSO to guide athlete development  from early childhood through to adulthood.  


Talent Identification

A cross-cultural comparison of talent identification and development in Paralympic sports: Perceptions and opinions of athletes, coaches and officials by Sabine Radtke & Gudrun Doll-Tepper, Federal Institute of Sport Science, 2014.  Examines Paralympic talent identification programs in the United States, United Kingdom and Canada.


Coaching and Leadership Development

Own the Podium, in collaboration with the Coaching Association of Canada and Coaches of Canada are developing a plan for High Performance Coaching and Technical Leadership in Canada. Current work focuses around coach professional development, high performance coach profiling and coach mentoring.


Sports Science, Medicine and Technology 

  • OTP's  Integrated Support Team Professional Development area is responsible for sports science, medicine and technology. OTP provides financial support to NSOs and the network of Canadian Sport Centres for the employment of a physiologist, sport psychologist, biomechanist, nutritionist, physical therapists/athletic therapist, and a physician.
  • Innovations 4 Gold (I4G) is Own the Podium’s applied sport research program to support cutting edge/competitive advantage initiatives in proactive sports medicine, human performance and sports engineering. The I4G initiative has significant contributions from Sport Canada, the COC, the COF, the CPC, and corporate Canada (Canadian Tire).
  • The Canadian Athlete Monitoring Program (CAMP) continues to emerge as a critical component supporting Olympic and Paralympic success. CAMP is a world leading database which focuses on athlete health, performance assessment and monitoring in the daily training environment. Approximately 7,000 high performance athletes are currently in the system.
  • In 2013, there were 34 applied sport science projects in the areas of human performance,sports engineering and proactive sports  medicine supported Canadian coaches and athletes in the daily training environment and competitions. One highlight in particular, in collaboration with the National Research Council, was a Think Tank for the 2016 Rio Olympics focusing on re-engineering the hull designs for Canoe/Kayak and Rowing, as well as continued research and development of instrumented paddles.
  • OTP has Performance Intelligence and Analysis advisers undertaking results tracking and International  intelligence gathering.
  • The SPort INnovation (SPIN) Summit is Canada’s annual cutting edge symposium for professional development and networking in the areas of applied sport science, sports medicine, and innovation.  

Sports Science, Medicine, Innovation Funding
2014/15 - CAN $2,470,774
2013/14 - CAN $2,059,456 

[Source: OTP Annual Reports]


Results and Statistics 

Olympic Games Medal Reports - Podium and Top 8 Placings (Infostrada/Gracenote)

Table 11: Summer Olympic Games (2000-2016) Medal Analysis


Sydney 2000 Athens 2004 Beijing 2008 London 2012  Rio 2016

Gold medal rank

24th 21st 19th 36th  20th

Medals

Gold - 3
Silver - 3
Bronze - 8
Total - 14

Gold - 3
Silver - 6
Bronze - 3
Total - 12 

Gold - 3
Silver - 9
Bronze - 6
Total - 18

Gold - 1
Silver - 5
Bronze - 12
Total - 18

 Gold - 4
Silver - 3
Bronze - 15
Total - 22

No. sports medalled in

11 7 10  11  10

No. multi-medal sports

3 4 6  5  4
Athletics - - 0 - 0 - 1 = 1 0 - 0 - 1 = 1   1 - 1 - 4 = 6
Boxing - - - -  -
Canoeing 0 - 1 - 1 = 2 1 - 0 - 2 = 3 0 - 1 - 1 = 2 0 - 1 - 2 = 3  -
Cycling - 1 - 1 - 0 = 2 - 0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 0 - 2 = 2
Diving 0 - 1 - 1 = 2 0 - 1 - 1 = 2 0 - 2 - 0 = 2 0 - 0 - 2 = 2   0 - 0 - 2 = 2
Equestrian - - 1 - 1 - 0 = 2 -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Football - - - 0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Gymnastics 0 - 0 - 2 = 2 1 - 1 - 0 = 2 0 - 2 - 0 = 2 1 - 0 - 0 = 1   1 - 0 - 0 = 1
Judo 0 - 1 - 0 = 1 - - 0 -  0 - 1 = 1  
Rowing 0 - 0 - 1 = 1  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  1 - 1 - 2 = 4 0 - 2 - 0 = 2   0 - 1 - 0 = 1
Rugby Sevens  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Sailing - 0 - 1 - 0 = 1 - -  -
Swimming 0 - 0 - 1 = 1 - 0 - 0 - 1 = 1 0 - 1 - 2 = 3  1 - 1 - 4 = 6
Synchronised Swimming 0 - 0 - 1 = 1 - -  -
Tennis 1- 0 - 0 = 1 - - -  -
Taekwondo 0 - 0 - 1 = 1 - 0 - 1 - 0 = 1 -  -
Triathlon 1 - 0 - 0 = 1 - 0 - 1 - 0 = 1 -  -
Volleyball - - - -  -
Weightlifting - - - 0 - 0 - 1 = 1  -
Wrestling 1- 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 1 - 0 = 1 1 - 0 - 1 = 2 0 - 1 - 1 = 2  1 - 0 - 0 = 1

n/a - not on Olympic program 

Table 12: Winter Olympic Games (2002-2014) Medal Analysis 

Salt Lake 2002 Torino 2006 Vancouver 2010

Sochi 2014

Gold medal rank

4 5 1 3

Medals

Gold - 7
Silver - 3
Bronze - 7
Total - 17

Gold - 7
Silver - 10
Bronze - 7
Total - 24

Gold - 14
Silver - 7
Bronze - 5
Total - 26

Gold - 10
Silver - 10
Bronze - 5
Total - 25

Number of sport medals won

7

10

9 9

Number of sports two or more medal won (multi-medal)

5

5

8 7
Alpine skiing      0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Biathlon  
Bobsleigh  0 - 1 - 0 = 1  1 - 1 - 1 = 3  1 - 0 - 0 = 1
Cross country skiing  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 1 - 0 = 2    
Curling  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  1 - 0 - 1 = 2  1- 1 - 0 = 2  2 - 0 - 0 = 2
Figure skating  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  0 - 0 - 1 = 1  1 - 0 - 1 = 2  0 - 3 - 0 = 3
Freestyle skiing  0 - 1 - 1 = 2  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  2 - 1 - 0 = 3  4 - 4 - 1 = 9
Ice Hockey  2 - 0 - 0 = 2  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  2 - 0 - 0 = 2  2 - 0 - 0 = 2
Luge      
Nordic combined      
Short track skating  2 - 1 - 3 = 6  0 - 3 - 1 = 4  2 - 2 - 1 = 5  1 - 1- 1 = 3
Skeleton    1 - 1 - 1 = 3  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  
Ski jumping  
Snowboarding    0 - 0 - 1 = 1  2 - 1 - 0 = 3  0 - 1 - 1 = 2
Speedskating  1 - 0 - 2 = 3  2 - 4 - 2 = 8  2 - 1 - 2 = 5  0 - 1 - 1 = 2

Paralympic Games Medal Reports - Podium and Top 8 Placings (Infostrada/Gracenote)

Table 13: Summer Paralympic Games (2000 - 2016) Medal Analysis   


Sydney 2000 Athens 2004 Beijing 2008 London 2012  Rio 2016

Gold medal rank

3rd 3rd 7th 20th 14th 

Medals

Gold - 38
Silver - 33
Bronze - 25
Total - 96
Gold - 28
Silver - 19
Bronze - 25
Total - 72

Gold - 19
Silver - 10
Bronze - 21
Total - 50

Gold - 7
Silver - 15
Bronze - 9
Total - 31
Gold - 8
Silver - 10
Bronze - 11
Total - 29 

No. sports medalled in

9 7

7

7  6

No. multi-medal sports

5 5 5 3  4
Archery - - - 0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Athletics 12 - 15 - 10 = 37 10 - 4 - 10 = 24

10 - 1 - 8 = 19

1 - 5 - 3 = 9 3 - 3 - 2 = 8 
Basketball (Wheelchair) 2 - 0 - 0 = 2 1 - 0 - 1 = 2 0 - 1 - 0 = 1 1 - 0 - 0 = 1
Boccia 0 - 0 - 2 = 2 1 - 0 - 1 = 2 - 0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Cycling 0 - 2 - 1 = 3 - 0 - 0 - 2 = 2 1 - 0 - 1 = 2
Equestrian - 0 - 0 - 2 = 2 1 - 1 - 0 = 2 -
Goalball 1 - 0 - 0 = 1 1 - 0 - 0 = 1 - -
Judo 0 - 0 - 1 = 1 - - -
Lawn Bowls - - - -
Rowing  n/a  n/a  -  -  0 - 0 - 1 = 1
Rugby (Wheelchair) - 0 - 1 - 0 = 1 0 - 0 - 1 = 1 0 - 1 - 0 = 1   -
Sailing 0 - 0 - 1 = 1 - 1 - 0 - 1 = 2 - 0 - 1 - 1 = 2 
Swimming 23 - 15 - 10 = 48 15 - 14 - 11 = 40 7 - 7 - 9 = 23 4 - 9 - 3 = 16 4 - 2 - 2 = 8 
Triathlon  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  0 - 1 - 0 = 1
Volleyball 0 - 1 - 0 = 1 - - -

n/a - not on Paralympic program 

Table 14: Winter Paralympic Games (2002-2014) Medal Analysis

Salt Lake 2002 Torino 2006 Vancouver 2010

Sochi 2014

Gold medal rank

6 6 3 3

Medals

Gold - 6
Silver - 4
Bronze - 5
Total - 15

Gold - 5
Silver - 3
Bronze - 5
Total - 13

Gold - 10
Silver - 5
Bronze - 4
Total - 19

Gold - 7
Silver - 2
Bronze - 7
Total - 16

Number of sport medals won

2 4 3 5

Number of sports two or more medal won (multi-medal)

2 2 2 3
Alpine skiing  4 - 3 - 5 = 12  1 - 2 - 3 = 6  6 - 4 - 3 = 13  2 - 1 - 5 = 8
Biathlon      0 - 1 - 1 = 2
Cross country skiing  2 - 1 - 0 = 3  2 - 1 - 2 = 5  3 - 1 - 1 = 5  4 - 0 - 0 = 4
Curling    1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1  1 - 0 - 0 = 1
Ice sledge hockey    1 - 0 - 0 = 1    0 - 0 - 1 = 1 

 


Participation

Canadian Sport for Life's Long-Term Athlete Development framework is a seven-stage training, competition and recovery pathway guiding an individual’s experience in sport and physical activity from infancy through all phases of adulthood.


Competitive Intelligence

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International networking

  • The ASC's principal sport information contact on the ground in Canada is... 

Funding profiles by sport

  Table 6: Own the Podium Funding - Olympic Summer Sports

Sport Beijing Quad * (CAN $) London Quad (CAN $) Rio Quad (CAN $)
Archery - 117,500 225,00
Athletics 3,151,000 10,234,500 13,170,00
Baseball 390,00 - -
Basketball (Women) 1,107,000 - -
Basketball (Men) 625,000 - -
Boxing - 250,000 700,000
Canoe/Kayak 5,199,682 10,634,000 10,350,000
Cycling 2,238,520 8,158,330 13,152,750
Diving 3,058,550 8,705,000 10,700,00
Equestrian - 4,305,000 1,175,000
Fencing 954,000 2,272,700 -
Football - Women 1,591,000  6,455,370  9,060,000
Gymnastics 3,737,000  6,021,000 2,935,000
Judo 1,259,000 1,870,000 3,090,000
Rowing 5,098,204 16,174,600 17,368,500
Rugby 7's - Women - 55,000 7,280,000
Sailing 1,655,000 2,877,000 640,000
Shooting 100,000 - -
Softball 1,308,500 -
Swimming 3,070,500 11,050,500 13.315,000
Synchronised Swimming 1,130,775 3,049,100 2,565,000
Table Tennis 415,000 - -
Taekwondo 725,000 894,446 200,000
Tennis 698,000 34,750 275,000
Triathlon 898,200 2,922,864 1,555,000
Volleyball - Beach 589,000 - 150,000
Volleyball - Men 1,382,500 - -
Water Polo - Women 1,498,969 5,293,000 2,250,000
Weightlifting  80,000  180,000  50,000
Wrestling 2,346,500 4,650,00 5,470,000
 Total  CAN $44,306,900 CAN  $106,204,660  CAN $115,676,250

* only includes last 3 years 

Table 7 : Own the Podium Funding - Paralympic Summer Sports 

Sport Beijing Quad (CAN $) London Quad (CAN $) Rio Quad (CAN $)
 Archery  20,000  40,000 60,000 
Athletics 1,076,000 3,879,300 4,075,000
Boccia 266,750 710,150 920,000
Canoe - - 300,000
Cycling 427,500 1,961,300 2,372,250
Equestrian 372,894 1,758,840 1,170,000
Goalball - Women 560,000 1,250,000 -
Goalball - Men 132,000 - -
Judo 10,000 - -
Powerlifting 17,550 - -
Rowing  124,400  615,000  127,000
Sailing 207,000 948,000 870,000
Shooting 20,000 - -
Swimming 1,431,000 4,252,000 4,480,000
Table Tennis 30,000 - -
Triathlon - - 380,000
Wheelchair Basketball - Women 1,011,500 2,465,500 1,550,00
Wheelchair Basketball - Men 1,041,000 2,500,500 3,250,000
Wheelchair Fencing 10,000 30,000 -
Wheelchair Rugby 910,500 2,975,000 3,545,000
Wheelchair Tennis 180,000 - -
Total CAN $7,848,294 CAN $23,385,590 CAN $23,099,250

* only includes last 3 years 

Table 8: Own the Podium Funding - Winter Olympic Sports 

Sport Vancouver Quad Socchi Quad  Pyeongchang Quad
Alpine Skiing 8,735,400 6,99,443 2,875,000
Biathlon 1,784,173 1,324,623 700,000
Bobsleigh 4,931,864 5,917,698 2,765,000
Cross Country Skiing 4,714,855 5,066,890 1,700,000
Curling 3,617,500 5,255,000 2,550,000
Figure Skating 2,740,500 3,308,000 2,200,000
Freestyle Skiing 8,420,407 10,320,580 7,459,750
Ice Hockey - Women 4,849,000 4,661,100 2,100,000
Ice Hockey - Men 1,405,000 1,129,000 550,000
Luge 3,015,017 3,472,595 1,940,000
Nordic Combined 233,875 162,548 -
Nordic Consortium - 1,382,050 -
Skeleton 3,498,656 3,505,000 182,500
Ski Cross 3,110,295 5,888,450 2,632,501
Ski Jumping 461,375 788,498 50,000
Snowboard 7,104,116 8,815,008 3,508,155
Speed Skating - Long 7,888,480 6,972,601 2,899,594
Speed Skating - Short 4,621,329 6,822,121 3,195,000
Total 71,131,942 81,791,205 37,307,500

Table 9: Own the Podium Funding - Winter Paralympic Sports 

Sport Vancouver Quad Socchi Quad Pyeongchang Quad
Para Alpine Skiing 4,576,728 4,453,156 2,200,000
Para Nordic Skiing 2,861,097 2,110,500 1,300,000
Para Snowboard - - 146,500
Sledge Hockey 1,612,000 1,788,000 900,000
Wheelchair Curling 1,088,500 1,538,000 780,000
Total 10,138,325 9,889,656 5,326,500

System strengths

  • A targeted and performance based approach to funding sports, particularly Winter Games sports, has led to strong performance outcomes.
  • OTP’s strategic investment principles and coordination of resources at a national level reduces duplication and inefficiency across the system.
  • Canada possesses a strong coach development system led by the Coaching Association of Canada.
  • Easier access to the United States, university sports system, including the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) scholarship program and its various competitions.
  • Strong focus and investment in sport information research and literature service to coaches, scientists and other leading sports practitioners through the Sport Information Resources Centre (SIRC).

System weaknesses

  • A priority focus on funding and supporting Winter Olympic sports over the past decade appears to have had a detrimental impact on Canada’s Summer Olympic and Paralympic performance.
  • Difficult for Summer Olympic NFs to compete with professional codes such as ice-hockey for emerging athletic talent – particularly with talented junior men.
  • Lower levels of sports science/medicine servicing and research in comparison to other competing nations

Relevance to Australian Environment

  1. The Federal Government (Sport Canada) relies on high performance sport strategy and investment advice provided by the independent and not-for-profit organisation, OTP. This would be like the AIS being independent from and providing advice to the ASC regarding strategy and investment.
  2. The OTP prioritises and determines the investment strategies and funding allocations to all Olympic and Paralympic sports and has established a set of principles to guide and coordinate investment across the federated network of CSCs. This would be like the AIS determining the investment priorities of the SIS/SAS.
  3. Like the Australian SIS/SAS, the CSCs are principally funded by their respective provincial and territorial governments.
  4. A reforming and improving system—Sport Canada and the OTP continue to lead and implement significant high performance system reforms (for example,  the recent expansion of OTP’s remit to include Summer Olympic/Paralympic sports)
  5. Canada shares a similar population and geographic size.  Other obervations pending

Miscellaneous information resources

Please note - End of secure web page section


Further Resources and Reading

Websites

Articles

  • Canada by A. Doherty and R.Clutterbuck In Comparative sport development : systems, participation and public policy ed. K. Hallmann and K. Petry. New York, Springer, 2013, 3232-342
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