Match-Fixing and Illegal Sports Betting

Match-Fixing and Illegal Sports Betting       
Prepared by  Prepared by: Chris Hume and Christine May, Senior Research Consultants, Clearinghouse for Sport, Sport Australia
evaluated by  Evaluation by: Dr. Keith Parry, Senior Lecturer - School of Business and Institute for Culture and Society, Western Sydney University (November 2017). 
Reviewed by  Reviewed by network: Australian Sport Information Network (AUSPIN)
Last updated  Last updated: 4 February 2019
Please refer to the Clearinghouse for Sport disclaimer page for
more information concerning this content.

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Introduction

Match fixing and illegal sports betting poses a significant threat to the integrity of Australian sport. Individuals and organised groups undertaking this illegal practice may seek to influence and exploit players, umpires, and other officials to achieve various ends.

Please note the focus of this topic is looking at gambling on sport—excluding horse and dog racing.


Key Messages 

1

The manipulation of outcomes and results within the sporting arena poses a threat to sports' integrity.

2

An Australian national policy on match fixing has been agreed to by Federal and State/Territory Ministers of Sport.

3

A National Integrity of Sport Unit has been established and a number of high profile sports have also established integrity units to manage these issues.


There’s plenty of evidence to suggest that attempts to manipulate the outcome of the competitions are as old as sport itself [source: Cheating bribery and scandal - how the ancient Greeks did the Olympic Games, Julia Kindt, Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Classics and Ancient History, University of Sydney, The Conversation, (19 August 2016)]. The first known written bribery contact dates back to around AD267, and involved two young wrestlers, Nicantinous and Demetrius, with the latter agreeing to throw the match for a relatively small amount (about enough to buy a donkey) [source: Body Slam This! Ancient wrestling match was fixed, Owen Jarus, LiveScience, (16 April 2014).]

The following definitions of key concepts will assist in understanding how they are applied in sport:

match-fixingMatch-Fixing

Match-fixing influences the course or result of a sports event in order to obtain advantage for an individual or for others, and to remove all or part of the uncertainty normally associated with sport.

The National Policy on Match-Fixing in SportAustralian Sports Ministers, (June 2011) defines match-fixing as follows:

  • The deliberate fixing of the result of a contest, or of an occurrence within the context, or of points spread; 
  • Deliberate under-performance;
  • Withdrawal (also known as "tanking", "manipulation", and "experimenting");
  • An official’s deliberate misapplication of the rules of the contest;
  • Interference with the play or playing surfaces by venue staff; and
  • Abuse of insider information to support a bet placed by any of the above or placed by a gambler who recruits such people to manipulate an outcome or contingency.
Spot-fixing is a sub-genre of match-fixing, and can be very common and hard to detect. It involves fixing a part of the match/competition before it begins (e.g. the first player to score, or score when a player is bowled out etc.), not the final result. 

CorruptionCorruption 

Corruption is 'the abuse of entrusted power for private gain' [source: What is the corruption perceptions index, Transparency International, (2011)

In a sport context, this can lead to a lack of confidence in a sport organisations' ability to manage competitions and events and therefore the withdrawal of support by participants, spectators, and sponsors.

  • Global Corruption Report: Sport, Transparency International, (February 2016). Sport is a global phenomenon engaging billions of people and generating annual revenues of more than US$145 billion. Problems in the governance of sports organisations, the fixing of matches, and the staging of major sporting events (including the construction of venues and facilities) have spurred action on many fronts. Attempts to stop corruption in sport however, are still at an early stage.

IntegrityIntegrity 

The Australian Government, Department of Health, National Integrity of Sport Unit (NISU) defines sports integrity as:

The manifestation of the ethics and values which promote community confidence in sports, including:

  • fair and honest performance and outcomes, unaffected by illegitimate enhancements or external interests, and
  • positive conduct by athletes, administrators, officials, supporters, and other stakeholders, on and off the sporting arena, which enhances the reputation and standing of the sporting contest and of sport overall.

tankingTanking 

Deliberately trying to lose, taking into account effort and perception of effort; and the use of tactical strategies that might allow losing some games or points in order to gain an overall advantage. 

Sports betting is a rapidly developing enterprise in Australia and internationally, generating significant revenue streams. The practice now extends to most, if not all, sports with a public media profile.

The sports wagering market, both globally and domestically, has burgeoned over the past decade, with thousands of online bookmakers now offering betting markets on a vast and increasing array of sports. Australians are among the most prolific gamblers in the world with total sports betting expenditure in 2013-14 estimated at AUD$4.6 billion, and online betting AUD$2.75 billion. Annual betting turnover in Australia on the Australian Football League (AFL) is estimated to be around AUD$1.3 billion, and the National Rugby League (NRL) AUD$1.1 billion. [source: National Integrity of Sport Unit submission (PDF  - 545 KB) to the Impact of Illegal Offshore Wagering Review, (2015)]. 

There are a number of issues that have been identified that pose threats to the integrity of sport:

  • the scope of gambling activity
  • technology
  • criminal issues
  • ethical considerations
  • regulation and legislation

The Scope of Gambling Activity

Match-fixing and illegal sports betting continue to receive Government scrutiny and media attention in Australia and internationally. Leading law enforcement agencies and peak sport bodies have identified match-fixing and illegal sports betting, and other related forms of unethical conduct, as posing a significant threat to the integrity of sport world-wide. 

Advancements in communications and technology allow gamblers to place bets, not only on match results, but also on whether particular 'outcomes' will occur during a sports match or competition. These betting optionsknown as 'exotic bets’, 'spot bets', or 'micro betting'can increase the risk of unethical behaviour and the potential for corruption or exploitation of the gaming industry

  • How the gambling dollar is corrupting sport, Tony Robinson, The Age, (4 April 2016). It's a hackneyed expression, but Victorians love their sport. But there is an emerging fault line in professional sport which, if not addressed, will ultimately do irreparable damage. In only a generation, sports betting has assumed enormous scale and, it seems, an ability to compromise the instincts of sports administrators. 
  • 'Pitchsiders' finding new ways to stay ahead of the game while betting on cricket, Andrew Wu, Sydney Morning Herald, (15 December 2015). A computer program used by audacious cyber scammers has emerged as a new weapon for pitch-siders to avoid detection by cricket's anti-corruption officers.

Technology

The rapid uptake of digital technologies has meant that national boundaries have been eroded and there are many effective platforms to facilitate on-line wagering. Australian sports can be vulnerable because of their large followings; the exponential growth of online sports wagering in Asia; the lack of meaningful regulation; and conducive time zones.

The change in consumer preferences and the increasing advertising of online betting operators has seen a large increase in on-line betting products in Australia. Product innovation and technological advances have made online betting increasingly convenient. This has seen many bricks-and-mortar outlets being by-passed for online channels. It is envisaged that this trend will only become larger in the future.

According to Tabcorp’s 2014 Annual Report, in terms of distribution channels, digital was a driver of growth, with turnover up 18.2%. Mobile devices made up 54% of Tabcorp’s digital turnover, up from 35% in 2013 [source: 2014 Concise Annual Report (PDF  - 2.0 MB), Tabcorp, (2014)]. 

Criminal Issues

Sport has become a target for criminal activity - betting scams, match fixing, and manipulating in-game outcomes. Illegal profits may be linked to money laundering domestically and internationally.

  • International forum for sports integrity steps up action to prevent competition manipulation and corruption in sport, IOC media, (16 February 2017). The Forum agreed to the creation of an Olympic movement unit on the prevention of the manipulation of competitions and launch of international sports integrity partnership.
  • Terror Networks Target Sports Betting, Zaihan Mohamed Yusof, Singapore News, (8 November 2016).  Experts say terror groups exploit sports betting because of slim chance of getting caught and difficulty in tracking international movement of money.
  • With sports betting on the rise, can we avoid a tsunami of gambling harm?, Charles Livingstone, The Conversation, (August 2015). Sports betting, it seems, is in your face pretty much everywhere these days. Sports fans certainly can’t escape its lures – gambling ads are seen anywhere professional sport is played. 
  • The Great Cricket CoupABC Four Corners, (10 August 2015). As the Ashes played out in England, Four Corners went into the backroom power plays of the cricket elite where an audacious coup has delivered extraordinary power to India, at the expense of smaller cricketing nations. The program also revealed elements of corruption including money laundering, gambling, and match-fixing.  
  • UNODC and ICSS launch comprehensive resource guide, ICSS, (September 2016). Following on from the partnership signed last year at the 13th United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, UNODC and International Centre for Sport Security (ICSS) have today unveiled a new resource guide that will help law enforcement and sports organizations better detect and investigate match-fixing and cases of sports-results manipulation. The guide include the following areas: 

    • Co-operation between law enforcement and sport investigators;
    • Sources of information, allegations, intelligence, and evidence;
    • Evidence and interviewing;
    • Why match-fixing is an international issue;
    • Application of existing legal instruments e.g. UNCAC, UNTOC etc.;
    • Relationship between investigators and prosecutors in a criminal or sporting case; and
    • Alternative & complementary approaches to combat match-fixing.

Online transactions may be tied to other criminal activities including identity theft, economic conspiracy and fraud. In Australia, sports betting (5 per cent) and race betting (fifteen per cent) make up 20 per cent of the annual gambling expenditure [source: Roy Morgan Research June 2014 (PDF  - 626 KB)]. Australian sports betting market indicators suggest that it is the fastest growing form of gambling - more than doubling in popularity and revenue since 2006. [source: Sports betting research: literature review, Catherine Palmer, University of Tasmania, report for Gambling Research Program, Department of Health & Human Services, Tasmania, (2014)]. 

Strong links exist between illegal sports gambling and match-fixing. Organised crime syndicates or groups conduct fraudulent activities that are contrary to the law to exploit the vulnerabilities of players/athletes and sports officials. Internet gambling and online betting generate large profits that are generally outside the control of government legislation and therefore open to criminal activity. 

  • Corruption in Australian Sport, (PDF  - 350 KB), Australian Institute of Criminology, Trends & Issues, paper number 490, (February 2015). The AIC published a paper on corruption in Australian sport which reassesses sport's vulnerability to illegal activities such as match-fixing, use of inside information for betting purposes and the use of performance and image-enhancing drugs.  

Review into the Integrity of Australian Sport 

In August 2017 then Federal Minister for Sport, the Hon Greg Hunt, announced a review into the integrity of Australian sport as part of the development of the Government's National Sport Plan. The review, led by the Hon James Wood AO QC, examined national and international integrity threats and future challenges, including the rise of illegal offshore wagering, match-fixing, and doping in sport. Additionally, it considered the merits of establishing a dedicated national sports integrity commission.

The review panel held over 40 stakeholder meetings, and reviewed over 30 written submissions referencing sports integrity that were provided through the National Sport Plan website.

The Review Panel terms of reference included: 

  • Examine the current national and international sports integrity threat environment and foreseeable future challenges;
  • Examine the adequacy of Australia’s current sports integrity capability against this current environment, with particular attention to;
  • the capability of the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority and Australia’s sport sector to address contemporary doping threats, including the anti-doping rule violation process, and opportunities for improvement;
  • the effectiveness of the 2011 National Policy on Match-Fixing, including consideration of the merits of becoming a signatory to the European Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions (Macolin Convention), and case for national match-fixing laws;
  • the merits of establishing a formal national platform for effective ongoing detection of and response to betting-related sports corruption; and
  • the merits of establishing a national sports integrity tribunal, as a single independent body to hear anti-doping rule violations and other sports integrity matters;
  • Consider options for structural changes to current sports integrity arrangements, including the merits or otherwise of establishing a dedicated national sports integrity commission or similar entity;
  • Consult widely with stakeholders on the above matters to ensure a comprehensive capture of views and insights to aid the review; and
  • Make recommendations on the above for Government consideration. 

The final report was provided to the Federal Government for consideration and response in March 2018 [source: Review of Australia’s Sports Integrity Arrangements, Senator The Hon Bridget McKenzie, Minister for Sport media release, (23 March 2018)] and was made public on the first of August 2018. In line with its terms of reference, the Review addresses key domestic and international threats to the integrity of sport and makes 52 recommendations across five key themes including a stronger national response to match fixing and establishing an Australian sports wagering scheme, a national sports tribunal and a national sports integrity commission.

The Government also announced the establishment of a Sports Integrity Review Taskforce to coordinate a whole-of-government response to the Review's recommendations as well as a Sports Integrity Review Inter-Departmental Committee to provide oversight and guidance to the Taskforce. Additionally, interested parties and stakeholders are invited to provide comment on the findings of the review through an online survey available until 31 August 2018. 

For more information and resources relating to the Review or to provide comments to help develop a Government response to the Review recommendations visit the Australian Government Department of Health web pages: 

There are indications that major sports organisations are prepared to spend substantial financial resources on hiring highly skilled sports data companies using sophisticated statistical techniques to monitor sports betting trends as a means of identifying illegal sports betting and possible match-fixing.  Some examples include:

  • The National Hockey League (NHL) announced that it was incorporating Sportsradar fraud detection system into its game integrity protection.  
  • In 2016 the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF) has signed an agreement with FIFA’s EWS (Early Warning System) to monitor its games.  A compelling reason for this agreement was the alleged influences on the result of a 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying match against Canada.  
  • Tipbet is an online sports betting product linked to the FIFA Early Warning System as one of the betting operators who exchange information on irregular and suspicious betting activities. 
  • In 2016 the National Basketball Association (NBA) signed a data deal with Sportradar and an advanced statistics firm Second Spectrum. This data-driven deal is reportedly worth in excess of $250 million over six years.
  • Other exclusive agreements have been negotiated with other sports organisations including the International Ice Hockey Federation, the German Ice Hockey League, the International Tennis Federation and NASCAR.  
  • Match Fixing and Sports Betting in Football: Empirical Evidence from the German Bundesliga, Christian Deutscher, Eugen Dimant and Brad R. Humphreys, SSRN, (January 2017). Corruption in sports represents an important challenge to their integrity. Corruption can take many forms, including match fixing by players, referees, or team officials. Match fixing can be difficult to detect. We use a unique data set to analyze variation in bet volume on Betfair, a major online betting exchange, for evidence of abnormal patterns associated with specific referees who officiated matches. An analysis of 1,251 Bundesliga 1 football matches from 2010/11 to 2014/15 reveals evidence that bet volume in the Betfair markets in these matches was systematically higher for four referees relative to matches officiated by other referees. Our results are robust to alternative specifications and are thus suggestive of potentially existing match fixing and corruption in the German Bundesliga. 

These commitments suggest that sports organisations are beginning to understand the value of gambling activity as well as a need to ensure that the integrity of competition is maintained.  For example, these partnerships with Sportradar will allow sports organisations to detect when a non-traditional wager is placed and quickly work with an operator to determine whether there may be an act of impropriety associated with the bet.

An important step for sports’ integrity is to educate players about protocols and the chances and penalties of being caught. Highly sophisticated match-fixing and illegal sports detection programmes have increased significantly and the penalties imposed by sports organisations are designed to make it not worth the risk for players to manipulate matches. 

During the 2016 Rio Olympic and Paralympic Games only three athletes were sanctioned by the IOC Disciplinary Commission for violating the Rules on the Prevention of Manipulation of competitions (PDF  -1.5 MB). As the Disciplinary Commission determined that these athletes had no intention to manipulate an eventone Irish boxer (Steven Donnelly) actually bet on himself to lose but wonthey received severe reprimands and were obliged to follow and contribute to various integrity and educational programmes. Overall, very little betting on Olympic events took place and still less was expected at the Paralympics. Industry estimates were that over the 11 days the Paralympics would, ‘generate the same as one midweek horse race’ [source: Rio Paralympic Games: Why bookies won't be taking many bets, Dan Macadam, BBC, (6 September 2016)].    

  • IOC sanctions three athletes for betting on Olympic competitions in Rio 2016. IOC, (28 September 2016). Protecting the integrity of sport at the Olympic Games is a top priority for the International Olympic Committee (IOC). A number of sound new measures were therefore put in place during the Olympic Games Rio 2016, both in the Olympic village and behind-the-scenes.
  • Australian cricketers being targeted by bookmakers via social mediaAAP/The Guardian, (30 December 2016). Australian cricketers on the verge of making it to national squads and the Big Bash League are being targeted by bookmakers via social media. Cricket Australia head of integrity Iain Roy confirmed that foreign bookmakers are targeting players via tools such as Twitter, Instagram and Facebook as they seek information on squads and playing conditions.  

Gambling has traditionally been considered an adult activity; but there is now evidence to suggest that a significant proportion of adolescents are also involved from increasingly younger ages and younger athletes are also at risk.  Australian Institute of Family Studies research indicates that one in seven (13%) of Australian adults gamble on sport, predominantly online (interactive gambling). There are concerns relating to the way sports-embedded gambling promotions may normalise gambling and potentially be used to 'groom' a new generation of problem gamblers [source: Sports betting and advertising, Nerilee Hing, AGRC Discussion Paper No.4, (November 2014)].

Little data is available on the gambling vulnerability of younger athletes.  However, a national study of gambling and health risk behaviours among U.S. college student-athletes found a significant relationship between gambling severity and health risk behaviours (including: substance use, gorging/vomiting, and unprotected sex), [source: Gambling and Health Risk Behaviors Among U.S. College Student-Athletes: Findings from a National Study, Huang, Jacobs, Derevensky, et.al., Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol.40(5), (May 2007)].  

  • Federbet: Match fixing in Europe has reached 'epidemic' proportions, The Parliament Magazine, (15 June 2016). Federbet, a Brussels-based organisation that investigates illegal betting, told a news conference the problem was a "virus" that had spread to major football tournaments such as the Champions League. However, Francesco Baranca, Federbet secretary general, said there was no evidence the European football championships in France had been affected.
  • Global sports gambling worth 3 trillionDaily Mail, (April 2015). The global sports betting market is worth more than $US1.0 trillion ($A1.3 trillion), the vast majority of which is generated by illegal gambling, a United Nations conference has heard.  Patrick Jay, a British-based independent betting expert, said about 65 per cent of that global figure was spent on football betting, with the Asian market the centre of sports gambling. Tennis and cricket account for a further 12 per cent each, said Jay, who was speaking at a session on match-fixing in sport at the week-long UN Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.

National Policy on Match-Fixing

In February 2011, The National, State, and Territory Sports Ministers agreed to address match-fixing and protect the integrity of sport by introducing legal arrangements and integrity agreements between sports and betting companies.  

Under the National Policy on Match-fixing in Sport all sporting organisations are expected to provide appropriate education to players, player agents, support personnel, officials, and staff on their responsibilities. Templates are provided to help sports develop anti-match-fixing policies and codes of conduct.

To assist sporting organisations, the Australian government has also developed a free education program, Keep sport honest, which covers the following key learning areas:

  • what is match-fixing in sport—history and examples;
  • the growth of sports betting and why match-fixing has become a significant threat to the integrity of sport;
  • how match-fixing can ruin careers and endanger lives;
  • how match fixers may target athlete, officials and other relevant people;
  • addictions—a gateway to corruption;
  • how to protect athletes, officials, and other relevant persons from corruption and their reporting requirements;
  • code of conduct requirements and other integrity tools; and
  • support and counselling options.

Under the National Policy on Match-fixing in Sport betting providers in Australia have integrity agreements with individual sports. These agreements provide for information sharing on betting activity, a right of veto by sports on high risk bet types, and a return of revenue to sports to support integrity efforts. Around 10 sports in Australia have integrity agreements in place with Australian online betting operators including the Australian Football League, Cricket Australia, National Rugby League, Netball Australia, and Tennis Australia.

The Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions (the Macolin Convention)

In February 2019 Australia became a party to the 'Macolin Convention', a multilateral treaty aimed at combating attempts to manipulate sports competitions. 

The Macolin Convention was adopted by the Council of Europe in 2014 and is the only current rule of international law on the subject of sports competition manipulation. The Convention provides common definitions and mechanisms for international co-operation and requires signatories to: 

  • promote preventative measures and co-ordinate the activities of relevant public authorities, sports organisations and betting operators; 
  • identify a national platform which will raise alerts and exchange information on irregular and suspicious bets at national and international level; 
  • appoint a representative or representatives to the Convention Follow-up Committee, responsible for the monitoring and effective implementation of the Convention; 
  • ensure that the manipulation of sports competitions, when it involves coercion, corruption or fraud, as defined by domestic law, may be criminally sanctioned and punishable;
  • consider adopting the most suitable means to fight against operators of illegal sports betting.  

Membership of the ‘Macolin Community’ will enable Australia to obtain formal ongoing access to international counterparts and meetings to work together and drive the measures to combat corruption in global sport.

Review – Impact of Illegal Offshore Wagering

On 7 September 2015, the Hon Scott Morrison, then Minister for Social Services, announced a review of illegal offshore wagering to investigate methods of strengthening enforcement and ensuring Australians are protected from illegal offshore wagering operators. The Terms of Reference outline the purpose and scope of the review.

Submissions to the review were received from a variety of organisations including sports and betting organisations such as: the Australian Sports Commission (now Sport Australia), National Integrity of Sport Unit, Department of Health; the Coalition of Major Professional and Participation Sports IncorporatedSportsbet Pty Ltd; and ESSA (global sports betting operators integrity body). 

The Commonwealth will lead a three-staged consultative implementation strategy with all jurisdictions aimed at ensuring all Australians are protected against illegal offshore wagering.

Key actions are:

  1. the establishment of a national consumer protection framework (national framework). The aim is to empower individual gamblers to ensure that problem gambling is minimised;
  2. amend the law to make it clear that it is illegal for unlicensed overseas gambling companies to offer gambling products to Australians. The Australian Communications and Media Authority will also be empowered to have stronger enforcement mechanisms; and
  3. introduce other disruption measures to curb illegal offshore gambling activity.

On 16 August 2017 the Interactive Gambling Amendment Bill 2016, having passed both houses of Parliament, was given assent and came into law. This Bill implemented the Government’s response to the recommendations of the 2015 Review of Illegal Offshore Wagering, by amending the: Interactive Gambling Act 2001 and the Australian Communications and Media Authority Act 2005 to:

  • clarify the services to which the Act applies by recognising prohibited interactive gambling services and regulated interactive gambling services; 
  • prohibit a person providing regulated interactive gambling services to Australians unless the person holds a licence under the law of an Australian state and territory; 
  • introduce a civil penalty regime to be enforced by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA); 
  • prohibit ‘click to call’ in-play betting services; 
  • streamline complaints handling and investigation processes; 
  • establish a register of eligible regulated interactive gambling services to be published on the ACMA website; and 
  • enable the minister to determine by legislative instrument that a specific thing is, or is not, a sporting event for the purposes of the Act Interactive Gambling Regulations 2001 to make consequential amendments; and 
  • Australian Communications and Media Authority Act 2005 to enable the ACMA to disclose certain information to foreign regulators and the Department of Immigration and Border Protection. 

Australia Just Banned Online Poker And Live Sports Betting, Josh Butler, Huffington Post, (21 March 2017). Online cards, roulette, in-play betting outlawed under gambling reforms. Australia's federal parliament just closed loopholes to ban online poker under changes to gambling laws passed by the Senate which also outlaw in-play sports betting.

Betting laws unlikely to deliver desired results, Mary Gearin, ABC, (30 November 2016). The Government's proposed laws to crack down on betting during sporting events could pave the way for more bets inside licensed venues, the Nick Xenophon Team (NXT) has said.

    Federal Government Organisations

    There are a number of organisations that have an interest in the regulation of gambling in sport. Increasingly, the are working together to combat the threats posed to the integrity of sport.

    Sport Australia (formerly the Australian Sports Commission)

    Guidelines to assist sporting boards with integrity oversight. Australian Sports Commission, (May 2016). ASC Chair John Wylie AM released a set of new practical guidelines which will be provided to every sport and professional club in Australia to assist leaders with the management and oversight of integrity issues confronting sport. 

    National Integrity of Unit

    As a result of the National Policy on Match-Fixing in Sport policyNational Integrity of Sport Unit (NISU) was established in 2012 within the Federal Department of Health. It assists in coordination of legislation, regulation, policies, and administrative practices between the Commonwealth, the States and sporting organisations in order to allow them to adopt appropriate measures that will assist in ensuring a consistent and effective approach to protect the integrity of sport.

    To assist sporting organisations to comply with the requirements of the National Policy on Match-fixing in Sport the NISU has developed several integrity tools and resources.

    Australian Crime Commission - Organised Crime and Drugs in Sport Report

    The Australian Crime Commission (ACC), released the findings of a 12-month investigation into the integrity of Australian sport and the relationship between professional sporting bodies, prohibited substances, and organised crime.

    According to the Australian Crimes Commission (ACC), there is a nexus’s between sport, drugs, crime, and gambling. Their investigation warned that relationships between criminal drug suppliers and athletes can be cultivated ‘with the ultimate aim of having the athlete participate in activities such as match fixing’. Although primarily focused on the use of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) the report identified evidence of match-fixing; but it did not name the codes being investigated.

    Australian Federal Police 

    The Australian Federal Police (AFP) and Sportradar have the signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) that is intended to increase the level of co-operation and information sharing between the two organisations in relation to investigating organised crime, including match fixing. 

    Sportradar data and evidence played a crucial role in the conviction of match-fixers and players in the Victorian Premier League. The case involved English players from conference clubs moving to Australia to play and fix matches on the instruction of betting syndicates based in Malaysia and Hungary.  

    In June 2017 the MoU was called into question in the Australian Parliament by Senator Nick Xenophon who wanted to know what was included in the arrangement, particularly in relation to the data collection of Sportsradar subsidiary company Real Time Sportscasts (who collect real-time data from amateur, semi-professional, and low-level sports events for international distribution). Due to operational reasons the MoU was not released at the time. 

    Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre

    The Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (AUSTRAC) is Australia's:

    • anti-money laundering (AML) and counter-terrorism financing (CTF) regulator
    • specialist financial intelligence unit (FIU).
    • Australia's AML/CTF regulator

    AUSTRAC oversees the compliance of thousands of Australian businesses including:

    • financial services providers
    • gambling industry
    • bullion dealers
    • remittance service providers
    • cash dealers.

    Their aim is to work with industry to harden the financial sector against penetration from organised crime, terrorists, or their sympathisers. 

    Productivity Commission

    Gambling (2010)

    The Productivity Commission, at the request of the Australian Government, conducted a second public inquiry into gambling. The purpose of the inquiry was to provide information and recommendations pertinent to all Australian jurisdictions. The commission held extensive consultations with government, the community, industry and academia. In addition, they conducted an analysis of combined data sets and conducted a survey with problem gamblers currently receiving counselling. Encompassing two volumes, the report covers a wide breadth of topics including, gambling participation and problem gambling, treatment and counselling, industry characteristics and developments, gambling policy and regulation, venue and activity characteristics, and online gambling.

    The Commission's final report was provided to the Australian Government on 26 February 2010. The Government publicly released the report on 23 June 2010.  


     Australian Capital Territory map

    Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

    ACT Gambling and Racing Commission. The Gambling and Racing Commission is an independent body responsible for the regulation of gambling and racing activities in the ACT.

    Criminal Code (Cheating at Gambling) Amendment Bill 2013
     
     New South Wales map

    New South Wales (NSW)

    Independent Liquor and Gaming Authority (ILGA). The ILGA is an independent statutory authority that regulates the Sydney casino, and licensing of liquor and gaming machine activities in NSW. It has a focus on the development of regulations and legislation, as well as the provision of information on recent court decisions and their implications in NSW.

    NSW Government Office of Liquor Gaming and Racing. The NSW OLGR is accountable for the development, implementation and integrity of the overall regulatory framework across alcohol, licensed clubs, charitable fundraising, and gambling activities in NSW. Its role includes policy direction, advice on regulation, early intervention, educational activities, and co-ordination of licensing, compliance, and enforcement functions.

    Betting & Racing Act 1998. The range of declared betting events upon which Tabcorp (NSW Division) and licensed bookmakers are permitted to offer betting is determined by the Minister for Gaming and Racing under section 18 of the Betting & Racing Act. Under section 20, the Minister determines the bet types which bookmakers may offer on each sport. With respect to declared events betting, Tabcorp (NSW Division) and bookmakers operate under separate - but similar - sets of Rules. Under the Rules, betting disputes involving either category of wagering operator are referred to the Sports Betting Disputes Panel.

    • Gaming: advertising live odds banned in NSW to curb online sports betting, Michael Safi, The Guardian (November 2015). Advertising live odds during sporting broadcasts has been banned in New South Wales as regulators begin to examine ways to rein in the proliferation of online sports betting. The ban means television broadcasts that include segments with betting operators during play or breaks will need to be adjusted for NSW audiences or else dropped altogether. It applies to events shorter than four hours “siren to siren”, meaning Test cricket or golf tournaments will be excluded. Exactly how much is being gambled online on sport is yet to be quantified but the advertising spend by betting agencies increased fourfold between 2010 and 2013 to nearly $48m, according to monitoring firm Ebiquity. 
    • Live Betting Advertising Banned In NSW (PDF  - 95 KB), Troy Grant, Deputy Premier of NSW, Media Release, (7 November 2015). NSW will be the first state to ban betting on live-odds advertising during sports matches to reduce the harms of problem gambling and ensure the integrity of sports betting, Acting Premier and Minister for Justice Troy Grant. Live betting poses an increased risk to problem gamblers as it allows bets to be placed on impulse or in larger amounts to chase expected losses during a game. Its promotion during sports broadcasts exposes a captive television audience, that is likely to include children, to gambling. The ban on live-odds gambling advertising during sporting fixtures less than four hours long will take effect on 1 March 2016 and carry a maximum penalty of $5,500 for a breach.

     Northern Territory map

    Northern Territory (NT)

    Gambling Industry Licences. The NT Racing Commission manages licensing of racing-related activities and the Director-General of Licensing issues all other forms of gambling licences.

    Criminal Code (Cheating at Gambling) Amendment Bill 2013Legislation enacted in the Northern Territory.
    • High stakes online gaming bets Northern Territory. Jack Kerr, Saturday Paper, Edition 118, (July 2016). Relaxed regulations surrounding online gambling have turned the Northern Territory into a haven for sports betting agencies.   For such relatively small economic gains, the territory is facilitating an industry whose social costs run deep, and all without having to clean up the mess, its critics say.  SACOSS wants the current system to be changed and is campaigning for bets to be taxed in the state they are laid, rather than in the territory where the operator is licensed.   

     Queensland map

    Queensland (QLD)

    Office of Liquor and Gaming Regulation. The OLGR is responsible for regulating Queensland's liquor and gambling industries.  




     South Australia map

    South Australia (SA)

    Independent Gambling Authority. The Independent Gambling Authority (IGA) is the SA regulator for commercial forms of gambling. These include casino gambling, gaming machines in hotels and clubs, wagering on races and sports and commercial lotteries.

    Consumer and Business Services. Consumer and Business Services is responsible for administering the Authorised Betting Operations Act 2000, Casino Act 1997, and the Gaming Machines Act 1992. The purpose of the Authorised Betting Operations Act 2000 is to provide for the licensing and scrutiny of betting operations conducted by the UBET SA, racing clubs, bookmakers and agents.

    Criminal Law Consolidation (Cheating at Gambling) Amendment Act 2013. This Bill amends the South Australian Criminal Code to protect integrity in sport by prohibiting cheating at gambling in sport. It inserts new offences into the Criminal Code in relation to corrupting the betting outcomes of events or event contingencies on which it is lawful to place bets and for other purposes.
    • SA wagering tax passes Parliament –a national firstSouth Australian Council of Social Service, media release, (18 November 2016). The South Australian Council of Social Service welcomes the passing of legislation to establish the SA Wagering Tax. The tax, which was announced as part of the State Budget this year, will ensure that online bookmakers pay gambling tax in South Australia on revenue made from South Australian gamblers.
      • Losing the Jackpot: South Australia's Gambling Taxes. South Australian Council of Social Services, (14 June 2016). SACOSS’ report into gambling taxes in SA highlights growing pressures on the state budget from declining gambling tax revenues – but it is not necessarily good news for gamblers or the community. The SACOSS report notes that gambling taxes are the fifth biggest source of state taxes ($388m in 2014-15), but estimates that in real terms gambling tax revenue is now $111 a year less than it was a decade ago.

     Tasmania map

    Tasmania (TAS)

    Tasmanian Gaming Commission. The Tasmanian Gaming Commission is an independent body responsible for the regulation of gaming in Tasmania.

    Liquor and Gaming Branch, Revenue, Gaming and Licensing Division of the Department of Treasury and Finance. Tasmania's Liquor and Gaming branch provides administrative support to the Commissioner for Licensing, the Licensing Board and the Tasmanian Gaming Commission. It is responsible for undertaking the day-to-day activities related to the authorisation of the sale of liquor and the provision of gaming and wagering.

    Tasmanian Government releases have a safe bet this footy finals. Jacquie Petrusma, Minister for Human Services, Media Release, (27 August 2016). This campaign will be launched on Thursday, September 1 (2016) and urges young men to consider the impacts of sports betting on their life, including the encroachment of betting on their favourite sport and the disconnection from friends and family that excessive gambling can cause.  Research commissioned by the Department of Health and Human Services found young men with higher socio-economic status, employed full-time, better educated, and with access to the internet were the best group to target.  This campaign has been designed to target young men where they place bets, on digital devices, and includes online ads, still images and a 15 second TV commercial.  Audiences clicking on the ads are directed to the Know Your Odds sports betting page which provides information and links to self-assessment and self-help tools. The ads will also be targeted to the days and times around which games are scheduled.  A second campaign will run in late December 2016 and early January 2017, and will have a cricket focus and coincide with the Big Bash League cricket tournament.


     Victoria map
     

    Victoria (VIC)

    In Victoria, the Victorian Commission for Gambling and Liquor Regulation (VCGLR) is authorised to regulate gambling in clubs, hotels and the Crown casino as well as sports betting and wagering. Gambling businesses or activities need the Commission's permission to operate in Victoria.

    The offices of the Minister for Gaming and Liquor Regulation and the Minister for Racing are tasked with developing and implementing policies on gambling as well as amending the legislative framework in Victoria as required.

    The Victorian government took the most significant step of any jurisdiction in the world when it introduced legislation (known as ‘Sports Field Legislation’ under the Gambling Regulation Act 2003) requiring all betting agencies offering markets on Victorian events to obtain the approval of the controlling body of the relevant sport. The legislation directs betting agencies to enter into agreements with sporting bodies for sharing betting information for integrity purposes and to provide sports with a share of the revenue generated from betting on their events. Although this legislation only applies to events held in Victoria, most major betting agencies in Australia have entered voluntary disclosure agreements with the major Australian sports to mirror the Victorian legislation on non-Victorian events. 

    Crimes Amendment (Integrity in sports) Bill 2013 (PDF  - 601 KB). This bill amends the Crimes Act 1958 and creates a new offence for anyone found to engage in or facilitate any conduct that corrupts or would corrupt a betting outcome of a sport or racing event resulting in a financial advantage from a sporting match and racing event in which lawful gambling is permitted. This includes the fixing of match results, race results and other sporting events and also covers betting in event contingencies such as the score at a particular stage of an event or the player that scores the first goal or point. Anyone found guilty and convicted of this new offence faces a maximum sentence of 10 years imprisonment.

    • Vic Government sports betting ad crackdown. Marlene Kairouz, Minister for Gaming and Liquor Regulation, media release, (21 August 2016). Sports betting ads on public transport and near schools would be banned under proposed reforms put forward by the Andrews Government.  Minister for Gaming and Liquor Regulation, Marlene Kairouz today called for submissions for a public consultation on proposed restrictions on wagering advertising. 
    • Study of gambling and health in Victoria - Findings from the Victorian prevalence study 2014, Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation, (December 2015). The Study of gambling and health in Victoria presents findings from a 2014 exploration into participation in gambling in Victoria and the prevalence of problem and at-risk gambling. This is the first major study to measure problem gambling in Victoria in six years. The report compares findings with those of a 2008 survey published in A study of gambling in Victoria – problem gambling from a public health perspective (Hare, 2009). Participation in sports betting increased from 3.96 per cent to 4.82 per cent, with online now the most common way to bet on sports. There was a significant increase in sports betting participation among problem gamblers. 
    • Victorian officials worry about integrity of local sports as overseas gambling grows. Richard Willingham, The Age, (14 December 2015). Local sports leagues in Victoria are at risk of match-fixing and corruption because of the rise of unregulated overseas online bookmakers, the Victorian government has warned.  In 2004-05 punters lost just $24 million from a turnover of $180 million. In 2013-14 this jumped to losses of $213 million from a turnover of $1.3 billion.  The Andrews' government also calls for work to be done to see if it is possible for Australian internet service providers to block overseas gambling websites, as well as continuing the push for a national standard on gambling advertising.

     Western Australia map
     

    Western Australia (WA)

    Department of Racing, Gaming and Liquor. The Department of Racing, Gaming and Liquor is responsible for regulating and maintaining the integrity of lawful racing, gambling and liquor activities in Western Australia. 

    On 1 July 2017, the Department of Racing, Gaming and Liquor amalgamated with the Departments of Sport and Recreation, Culture and the Arts, and Local Government and Communities to form the Department of Local Government, Sport and Cultural Industries. During the transition phase the Department will continue to operate as usual and you can access our services and information through the existing website.  

    Betfair v Western Australia, (27 March 2008). The 2008 High Court decision of Betfair Pty Limited v Western Australia had major implications for how sports betting is conducted in Australia. In 2007, amendments were passed to the Betting Control Act 1954 (WA) preventing interstate betting exchange operators from conducting business in Western Australia. Betfair challenged the amendments arguing the law was unfair because it imposed protectionist burdens on interstate trade and therefore contravened section 92 of the Australian Constitution. The High Court of Australia found in favour of Betfair. 


     

    Coalition of Major Professional and Participation Sports 

    The Coalition of Major Professional & Participation Sports (COMPSS) was formed by leading National Sporting Organisations in 2004 to bring together key organisations with powers ‘to establish best practices for the sports industry and to share intelligence on sports betting and other integrity issues within the sports industry’. Cricket Australia and the Australian Football League have since established integrity units and appointed dedicated staff to develop integrity processes within their national organisations. COMPPS provides advice, informed opinion, and a sports industry perspective on behalf of its members to Governments and Government Agencies regarding a range of integrity issues

    • AFL and COMPPS coalition of Major sports players inplay-betting-to-stay-banned-as-government-holds-firm, Matt Thompson, AFL media, 28 April 2016). Live In-Play online and mobile app betting on AFL matches will remain banned for the foreseeable future. The AFL had joined forces with other major Australian sporting codes to argue that in-play internet betting be legalised.  The federal government announced it had no plans to allow such provision, and said it planned to close a loophole in betting apps. The Coalition of Major Professional and Participation Sports (COMPPS) had claimed live betting would provide better standards of integrity, by allowing sporting bodies to better monitor betting activity. The AFL had joined forces with other major Australian sporting codes to argue that in-play internet betting be legalised. 
    • COMPPS Submissions.

    Australasian Gaming Council

    The Australasian Gaming Council (AGC) is a national body which aims to support a sustainable gambling industry providing entertainment and economic benefits while promoting gambling education and responsible gambling measures. The AGC contains an e-Library which provides online research reports, papers, and articles on the gambling and gaming industry in Australia and also overseas.

    Australian Gambling Research Centre

    The Australian Gambling Research Centre (AGRC) was established under the Commonwealth Gambling Measures Act 2012, and has been in operation since 1 July, 2013. It is situated within the Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS), a statutory research agency of the Australian Government. The AIFS Director governs its operations. The AGRC research program reflects the Act, embodies a national perspective, and provides a strong family focus consistent with the AIFS Research Directions.  

    • Qualitative analysis of response to gambling promotions during televised sport, Matthew Lamont, Nerilee Hing and Peter Vitartas, Sport Management Review, (June 2016). Gambling promotions extensively punctuate contemporary televised sport broadcasts and concerns have been raised about their potential impacts on vulnerable groups. Research suggests advertising can shape individuals’ emotions, or affect, towards a product/brand and can subsequently influence purchasing decisions. Consequently, understanding how promotion of gambling influences sport viewers is an important although sparsely addressed area of research.
    • Sports betting and advertising, Nerilee Hing, AGRC Discussion Paper No. 4, (November 2014). This paper reviews the growth of sports betting and the accompanying proliferation of sports betting advertising, with particular focus on its integration into sporting events and broadcasts. It draws on lessons from the advertising of other potentially harmful products, and synthesises research into gambling advertising and the promotion of sports betting.

    Corruption in sport (in various forms, and at varying levels) has been documented in numerous organisations and sporting codes around the world, from football, to badminton, to the Olympic Games. In 2010 IOC President Jacques Rogge stated that ‘cheating driven by betting is undoubtedly the biggest threat to sport after doping’ [source: Sports movement agrees on unified strategy to tackle irregular betting, IOC, (24 June 2010)].

    The following international agencies and organisations have been prominent in attempting to prevent illegal sports betting and match-fixing. 

    INTERPOL

    INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organisation, with 192 member countries. Their role is to enable police around the world to work together to make the world a safer place. 

    In May 2010, Interpol entered into a 10 year initiative with the Fédération Internationale de Football Association to develop and implement a global training, education and prevention program with a focus on regular and irregular betting as well as match-fixing.

    According to Victorian Deputy Police Commissioner Ashton, Australian athletes could be groomed by international match-fixing syndicates looking to infiltrate into local competitions. He revealed "that an investigation between Interpol and Europol had found about 680 overseas football matches have been fixed" [source: Big sports betting pools draw police interestABC News, (7 February 2013)].  

    INTERPOL have established a dedicated Sports Unit to develop and implement the training key people in sport on how to recognise, resist, and report attempts to corrupt of fix matches. 

    International Olympic Committee (IOC)

    The IOC first took preventative measures to tackle the problem of illegal and irregular betting five years ago and it has been proactive ever since. The IOC’s Code of Ethics was amended in 2006 to forbid all participants in the Olympic Games from betting on Olympic events, and subsequent measures have been aimed at raising awareness of the issue, safeguarding the integrity of the Olympic Games and sport in general, and strengthening collaboration with partners inside and outside of the Olympic Movement.

    Play The Game 

    Play the Game is an international conference and communication initiative aiming to strengthen the ethical foundation of sport and promote democracy, transparency, and freedom of expression in sport. It focuses upon a number of issues related to integrity in sport, including Match fixing 

    European Union (EU)

    • Enlarged Partial Agreement on Sport (EPAS). The EPAS aims to promote sport and emphasise its positive values, to establish international standards, and develop a framework for a pan-European platform of intergovernmental sports co-operation while at the same time helping the public authorities of member States of the EPAS, sports federations, and NGOs to promote sport and make it healthier, fairer and better governed. 
      • On 9 July 2014 the Ministers’ Deputies adopted a Council of Europe Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions. The purpose of this Convention is to prevent, detect, punish and discipline the manipulation of sports competitions, as well as to enhance the exchange of information, and national and international co-operation, between the public authorities concerned, and with sports organisations and sports betting operators.
    • Combating Match-Fixing In Sport - A Guide To The Council Of Europe’s Convention On The Manipulation Of Sports Competitions. On 18 September 2014, the sports ministers of 15 of the member states of the Council of Europe (‘the CoE’) signed potentially the most significant legal instrument relating to match-fixing worldwide: Council of Europe Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions (‘the Convention’). 
      • Adopted at the same time was an Explanatory Report on the Convention. [source: Kevin Carpenter, Law In Sport, (6 October 2014)] 
    • Fix the Fixing aims to develop a user-friendly educational tool will that will be used by stakeholders to increase people’s involved in sport awareness about corruption, fraud and match-fixing in different types and levels of sport; teach coping skills on resisting offers and temptations to engage in match-fixing; and indicate ways to properly report match-fixing incidents to the relevant authorities.

    Sports and Recreation Alliance (UK)

    The Sports and Recreation Alliance has been active in lobbying ministers to strengthen the regulatory environment around sports betting.  It has pressured for off-shore betting companies who operate in the UK to be fully licensed. To ensure that off-shore betting companies (the vast majority) will be subject to the same high standards required of those operating in the UK which particularly ensures that companies share any information about suspicious betting patterns with the Gambling Commission and with national governing bodies.  It is now focusing on resolving other issues for sport including how governing bodies can help determine what types of betting can be made on their sport.

    Sports Betting Integrity Forum (UK)

    Following on from the publication in September 2015 of the Sport and Sports Betting Integrity Action Plan (PDF - 600 KB) and the UK Government’s new sports strategy, the website of the Sports Betting Integrity Forum has also been launched.

    The SBIF brings together representatives from sports governing bodies, player associations, betting operators and trade associations, law enforcement and gambling regulation to tackle sports betting corruption. One of the SBIF’s key roles is to oversee implementation of the Sports and Sports Betting Integrity Action Plan.

    The new website provides a central hub for information on the SBIF’s strategy to address the risks associated with match-fixing to help preserve and protect sports betting integrity in the UK. A range of best practice products and resources are available on the site, which includes examples of education programmes and prevention strategies, models of best practice, case studies and relevant research and reports. 

    Sportsradar

    Sportsradar Fraud Detection System (FDS). The FDS is a unique service that identifies betting-related manipulation in sport. This is possible due to the FDS’s sophisticated algorithms and constantly maintained database of both odds and person fraud scores, which together are interpreted for the purpose of match-fixing detection.

    • International Tennis Federation extends partnership with Sportradar, Daniel Etchells, Inside the Games, (December 2015). The International Tennis Federation (ITF) has today extended its agreement with official data collector Sportradar AG for an additional five years. Swiss-based Sportradar, a global leader in its field, has collected and processed data for the ITF since 2012, helping to support the Federation’s internal integrity processes. 
    • How to catch a match-fixerSports Vice, (October 2015). Sportradar's Security Services watches leagues around the world for clients like the English Football Association, and its system flags hundreds of suspicious games each year.  It is a data company founded in 2001 that supplies statistics and analysis to a variety of clients around the world: media organizations, professional leagues and sports federations, and, crucially for this story, bookmakers. Sportradar's gambling division, Betradar, occupies the center of that industry, as a kind of clearinghouse for odds and other services for bookmakers.  Sportradar can detect when gamblers aren't following the expected betting patterns, when there's too much money—too much confidence—on one side.  
      • As an example: Sportradar was responsible for identifying a pattern of suspicious betting in the second-division Victorian Premier League football competition in Australia. A small group of players, under the direction of a criminal syndicate, won or lost matches as required in order to maximise betting outcomes. Sportsradar notified the Football Federation Australia (FFA) of the suspicious betting patterns. FFA then notified the police, who caught and convicted four players and a coach for match-fixing related offences [source: Southern Stars scandal: Soccer clubs 'obvious' match-fixing sparked questions from rivals, Dan Oakes, ABC, (23 September 2014)].
    The following examples describe the extent of illegal sports betting and match-fixing in various sports.  While some are more detailed examples others show different match-fixing techniques employed including tanking, involvement of referees, and agreements with gambling syndicates.   

    AFL iconAustralian Football League (AFL)

    The AFL delivers an education program to players and club officials that warns about doping and includes a specific section on the AFL’s gambling regulations and the risks that players could face.

    The AFL Integrity Unit’s responsibilities included the AFL’s gambling and personal conduct policies.  The AFL has entered into information sharing agreements with bookmakers and ASADA to assist with investigations and intelligence-gathering.  It has also developed pro-active relationships with ASADA and law enforcement agencies such as Victoria Police and the ACC, and the Integrity Unit is well regarded as a credible partner in protecting sport integrity. 

    In recent times, the Integrity Unit has developed an intelligence and investigations capability and since 2012 has used the AFL case management and intelligence database – a sophisticated tool that allows it to collate and analyse information to detect and act upon integrity risks for the game.  

    • Essendon ends commercial partnerships with gambling companies, Mike Hytner, The Guardian, (25 June 2015). AFL club Essendon has turned its back on commercial partnerships with gambling agencies as concern rises over the influence of the betting industry within the game. The Bombers said the decision was not taken lightly given the highly lucrative nature of deals but added that it was a necessary stand to take against the negative impact of gambling.
    • Carlton pulled coaches out of player punting group, Jake Niall, The Age, (25 June 2015). In another sign of AFL clubs' growing concern about gambling, Carlton pulled some of their coaches out of a player punting syndicate at the club, which has been wound back.
    • AFL players gambling epidemic footy’s hidden problem, Mark Robinson, Herald Sun, (5 May 2015). Up to 30 current players have major gambling problems.  Horse racing and multi-bets placed across a range of sports, mostly American, are the biggest attraction.  The AFL will shortly announce a new range of measures to help players.
    • Western bulldogs take time to educate players after Lachie Hunters betting investigation, Jon Ralph, Herald Sun, (9 April 2015). Western Bulldogs forward was cleared after another player accessed his account for a multi bet that included a Western Bulldogs game. The club had an obligation to ensure players knew the league’s gambling rules and to ensure they did not waste money on non-football gambling.
    • Magpie Crisp fined 5K for gambling on AFL, AAP/SBS, (30 March 2015). Collingwood midfielder Jack Crisp has escaped a ban for placing bets totalling $129 on AFL markets while at former club Brisbane Lions in 2014. The AFL fined Crisp $5000 but he escaped a ban due to his co-operation with its investigation and he will be free to play his former club in round one.  Crisp will also have to undergo counselling for a period to be determined by the counsellor and his club. 
    • Millions of dollars in gambling revenue at risk due to betting investigation on AFL Rising Star Award, Jason Dowling, Brisbane Times, (22 February 2015). The investigation comes as commentator and former premiership player David King is allegedly being investigated for placing a bet on last year's Rising Star winner, Lewis Taylor.

    cricket-smallCricket Australia

    There are incidents of match-fixing in Australian cricket going back to Mark Waugh and Shane Warne being fined for providing ‘incidental’ information to an Indian bookmaker during Australia’s tour of Sri Lanka in 1994 [source: John the bookmaker controversy, Wikipedia]. More recently there has been increasing concern with the possibility of Australian players in the Indian Premier League (IPL) being exposed to match-fixing.

    In November 2010 Cricket Australia established an Anti-corruption and Security Unit. Based on the ICC model, the aim of the unit is to oversee and maintain the integrity of Australia’s domestic cricket competitions. The unit is also responsible for implementation and management of the Cricket Australia Anti-Corruption Code. 

    • Cricket Australia Anti-Corruption Code (PDF  - 1.0 MB), Cricket Australia, (25 September 2017).  
    • Women's Big Bash cricketer Angela Reakes sanctioned by CA for $9 bets on World Cup, ABC news, (22 December 2015). Cricket Australia has charged Sydney Sixers WBBL player Angela Reakes for breaching its anti-corruption code over five bets she placed — totalling $9 — during the 2015 Cricket World Cup. CA has imposed a two-year suspended sentence on Reakes, 24, who currently plays for the ACT Meteors in the Women's National Cricket League, as well as the Sixers in the Women's Big Bash League.
    • Cricket groundsmen gagged in bid to thwart corruption by illegal bookmakers, Chris Barrett, Sydney Morning Herald, (6 November 2014). Australia's ground curators have been silenced as cricket authorities ramp up the fight against match-fixing before a bumper summer culminating in the World Cup.  The threat posed by illegal overseas bookmakers in a summer featuring the world's third largest sporting event has cricket chiefs braced with a counter-offensive that stretches far beyond their directive to groundsmen.
    • Cricket Australia urges players to report match-fixing suspicions during amnesty, Chris Barrett, The Age, (19 October 2014). Australian cricket has announced an unprecedented effort to weed out match fixing and zero in on shady characters behind it with the establishment of an amnesty period for players to report corruption-related suspicions.  The amnesty period to be announced is directed at fleshing out information or suspicions that current international and state players may have from throughout their careers.
    • The Warne-Waugh affair, Malcom Conn, ESPN, (24 June 2010). A look back at how the story of the involvement of two leading Australian players with bookmakers broke.

    Other Cricket Examples

    football-smallFootball (Soccer)

    Corruption in soccer was exposed by Declan Hill when his PhD thesis from Oxford University on the extent of corruption international sport and the extent of match-fixing became a best-selling book The Fix: Soccer and Organised Crime (Declan Hill, McClelland & Stewart, 2008).  

    Rugby-League-smallNational Rugby League (NRL)

    Match-fixing incidents in which a rugby league games can be manipulated are not new; but they are difficult to prove beyond doubt.  The only firm conviction in recent years was Ryan Tandy for trying to fix the early stages of a match between Canterbury (his team) and North Queensland Cowboys in 2010.  He was convicted and banned for life.  

    It is unlikely that a whole game can be fixed; but parts of the play can be easily manipulated.  This is called ‘spot fixing’ and as Dr Georgakis, Sydney Sports Academic, and Rugby League commentator noted, ‘the fixers are interested in the exotic bets.  For example, [the] first point scored in a match comes from a penalty.  Or the first try scorer’ [source: New probe into NRL match-fixing allegations, Penny Timms, ABC Radio,(2 June 2016)].

    Detective Inspector Wayne Walpole, in charge of the state’s charter against infiltration of organised crime into sport, said "such infiltration had already begun at clubs". He clarified that corruption or match fixing may not have happened yet, but that "infiltration is there and that infiltration can lead to the compromise of the sports of the athlete" [source: Police launch NRL match-fixing probeAAP/ESPN, (2 June 2016)]. 

    On 2nd June 2016, an officer from the New South Wales Police Organised Crime Squad announced that they were ‘in the early stages of examining information relating to alleged match fixing in the NRL’.  The investigation was focused on two 2015 NRL premiership games.  In round 16 Manly Sea Eagles lost 20-8 to South Sydney and in round 24 Manly again lost 20-16.   

    There was a strong response to the allegations from both the sport sector, and more broadly, with a general tone of respect for integrity and investigative process, and calling for people to respect the presumption of innocence until further evidence was provided. 

    [the NRL] 'was cooperating with authorities in relation to the allegations' and 'whatever the police require, they will get from the NRL'. 'There is nothing more important than the integrity of our sport'.  Todd Greenberg also threatened life bans for any players or officials found guilty.NRL CEO, Todd Greenberg


    Allegations of illegal betting

    A strong indicator for match-fixing is suspicious betting on games and Eddie Hayson, a controversial gambler, was reported to be a person of interest in the NSW police investigation.  It is alleged that he collected $500,000 in cash to bet on the match. The bet involved South’s winning by more than eight points and it is further alleged that six players were given $50,000 each.  Hayson denied the claims, or that match-fixing existed in rugby league at all and claimed that he had simply known a lot of the NRL players for a long time.

    Outcome

    On Friday 27 October 2017 the NSW Police force officially concluded the 'Strike Force Nuralda' investigation.  The investigation found no evidence of systemic match-fixing involving NRL clubs or organised crime groups. However, other issues that have been identified, including insider betting, players and/or officials passing information to those betting, potential third party payments (salary cap breaches), drug supply, and money laundering, may continue to be investigated by other organisations (e.g. AUSTRAC for potential breaches of the Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing Act 2006). In concluding the investigation the NSW Police highlighted that although no criminal charges had or will be preferred relating to this investigation some activities and practices uncovered were high-risk for the integrity of the NRL. The NRL in responding to the findings highlighted the changes they had already made, indicated that they would continue to work with the police on the recommendations provided, and continue to educate players on the 'need to make the right lifestyle choices'.  

    In October 2017 former Manly star Brett Stewart also successfully won a defamation case against a story published by News Corp relating to the NRL match-fixing allegations. Stewart argued that the story, which was quickly removed, injured his character, reputation, and occupation as a professional athlete. The settlement was not disclosed. 

    Tim Simona 

    While not implicated in match-fixing, Tim Simona's case demonstrates the importance of integrity in regards to sports betting by current professional athletes.

    In March 2017 Wests Tigers player Simona's registration to play in the NRL was terminated for breaching NRL rules. Breaches included betting on Rugby League matches; betting on opposition players scoring - and against his team winning; being untruthful in interviews with the Integrity Unit; and selling Rugby League jerseys through online auctions without passing the full proceeds to nominated charities. While not called a life ban NRL CEO Todd Greenberg indicated that his registration in future was unlikely to be approved. 

    rugby-Union-smallRugby Union

    • Former rugby league star - Phil Blake hit with betting ban in English RugbyABC news, (26 June 2015). Former Australia rugby league star Phil Blake has become the first person to be banned by England's governing Rugby Football Union (RFU) for breaching rules relating to betting and anti-corruption.  Blake was banned for six months after being found guilty of betting on matches involving Premiership side Leicester while working as a defence coach for the Tigers. 
    • BloodgateThe Guardian, (various dates and articles). 'Bloodgate' refers to the investigation of the use of a blood capsule by player Tom Williams, instigated by then Harlequins Rugby Director Dean Richards, during the club's Heineken Cup quarter-final loss to Leinster in April 2009. Williams used the capsule to simulate an injury so that specialist goal-kicker, Nick Evans could return to the pitch. The team physiotherapist and doctor were also implicated in the investigation, the former for supplying the fake blood capsule (the fifth time he had done so over 3 years) and the latter for covering up the fake injury by cutting William's lip (at his insistence). Richards was banned from the sport for 3 years, before returning to work as director of the Newcastle Falcons club in 2012. William's had his initial 12-month ban reduced to 4 months after testifying. The doctor received a warning for not acting in her patient's (the players) best interest but continued to practice. The physiotherapist received a 24-month ban from rugby and was initially struck off from the Health Professions Council and unable to practice further but, on appeal, this was overturned by the High Court. The club was fined £258,000. 

    tennisTennis Australia

    On the 25th January 2016, an Australian player, Nick Lindahl pleaded guilty to one of four charges of intentionally losing a match in 2013 and informing bettors of his plans in advance (Nick-Lindahl guilty). On Monday 18th April 2016 he was sentenced over the Toowoomba match-fixing. 

    Lindahl, and other players involved, were also sanctioned by the TIU. Nick Lindahl was banned for seven years and fined US$35,000. Brandon Walkin was given a six months suspension and Isaac Frost has served suspension for failing to co-operate with a TIU investigation. 

    In January 2017 the Victorian Police charged Oliver Anderson in relation to suspected tennis match-fixing in Taralgon in October 2016.  He was charged with engaging in conduct that corrupts a betting outcome. As of October 2017 the TIU investigation in this case had not been completed, but Anderson remains suspended.   

    Although not match-fixing related, Australian tennis player Calum Puttergill was found guilty in January 2017 of betting-related corruption by the TIU. Under the  Tennis Anti-Corruption Program (Program) no 'covered person' is allowed to bet on any professional tennis match anywhere in the world. Although Puttergill did not bet on any matches he himself played he did place 291 bets on tennis from May 2012 to November 2014. He was suspended for six months and fined US$10,000. Half of both the time and financial penalty were suspended conditional on Puttergill committing no further violation of the Program before 11 July 2017. 
    Game, set and match-fix: what more can be done to stop corruption in tennis? Diarmaid Harkin, The Conversation, (16 January 2017). The charges brought recently against reigning Australian Open junior champion Oliver Anderson, and the suspensions of three low-ranking Australian players for match-fixing, highlight the ongoing issue of corruption in tennis.

    As Australian Open Begins, Match Fixing Still Casts a Shadow, Chris Clarey, New York Times, (15 January 2017). A year ago, opening day at the Australian Open was overshadowed by the publication of a report that raised concerns about potentially widespread match fixing in tennis.

    Young Australian tennis players and corruption: a match made in heaven? Nino Bucci, Sydney Morning Herald, (14 January 2017). Oliver Anderson stands beyond the baseline, his navy shirt rippled by a stiff October wind, his white cap as bright as the court markings. He is the reigning Australian Open boys champion, but he's a long way from Melbourne Park. 

    Tennis Integrity Unity (TIU)

    The TIU was established in 2008. It is an operationally independent organisation which is funded by the seven major tennis stakeholders – International Tennis Federation, ATP, WTA, Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon and the US Open. All 'covered persons' (i.e. professional players) are bound by the Tennis Anti-Corruption Program. The TIU has three main strategic priorities:

    • preventing corruption from taking place; 
    • investigation and prosecution of offenders; 
    • delivering anti-corruption education for players, and stakeholders to recognise and report corrupt activity. 

    Tennis integrity watchdog had its most 'prolific' year for prosecutions, Scott Spits, Sydney Morning Herald, (12 January 2017). Tennis authorities have highlighted the successful conviction of nine players and officials by the Tennis Integrity Unit (TIU) last year as a pointer to its investment in tackling corruption in the sport was paying off.   

    Allegations of match-fixing in tennis are not new, and there have been many well publicised examples. 

    • Tennis is one of the most targeted sports for match-fixingLaw In Sport, (7 July 2015). A study carried out in Poland produced interesting findings suggesting that Tennis is one of the most targeted sports by match-fixers. 
    • How gambling "courtsiders" are affecting tennis, Ryan Rodenberg, ESPN, (22 August 2015). The most important point in any tennis match is the last point. Brad Hutchins was aware of this. And he knew it was lucrative. 
    • Poland tennis players suspendedLaw In Sport, (15 September 2015). Two Polish tennis players have been suspended and fined for violating the sport's anti-corruption rules. The Tennis Integrity Unit said that Piotr Gadomski and Arkadiusz Kocyla were found guilty of charges involving match-fixing. The 24-year-old Gadomski was suspended for seven years and fined $15,000 whereas 21-year-old Kocyla was suspended for five years and fined $15,000. The cases were heard at a joint hearing in London. The integrity unit said that the suspensions took effect immediately with both players banned from playing or attending any tournament organized by governing bodies of professional tennis. There were no specific details of the allegations provided against the players. Gadomski was ranked No. 739 and Kocyla No. 806 in the latest ATP rankings.

    On the eve of the 2016 Australian Open, the first Grand Slam of the year, the BBC published a damming report alleging tennis authorities had failed to investigate evidence of match-fixing by up to 15 players including one Grand Slam Winner. 

    Then, during the Open, matches suggested unusual betting patterns emerging on the mixed doubles matches between Czech Republic player, Andrea Hlavackova and Poland's, Lukasz Kubot and Spain's, Lara Arruabarrena and David Marrero led to the bookmaker suspending betting. 

    A Tennis Integrity Unit investigation found no evidence of corruption by the players, and no further action was taken.

    The combination of the Buzzfeed/BBC report, and the potential match-fixing incident led Tennis's governing bodiesincluding the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP), Women’s Tennis Association (WTA), International Tennis Federation (ITF) and the Grand Slam Boardto announce an independent review into their anti-corruption unit, the Tennis Integrity Unit (TIU). The final report of the Independent Review of Integrity in Tennis was published in December 2018 and recommends that the tennis industry needs to: 

    The issue of 'tanking', or players deliberately playing less than their best, has also been noted quite frequently in tennis. Whether the 'tanking' is related to illegal activities (i.e. match fixing or trying to gain advantage in a later match or event) or to other issues (e.g. player attitude or motivation) is often difficult to determine. Australian tennis players Nick Kyrgios and Bernard Tomic have both been accused of,tanking during matches, and even fined for breeching the ATP's 'best effort' Code of Conduct, but have not currently been linked to allegations of illegal actions. 


     Australia map

    Australian

    • Australian Football League (AFL): National Gambling Policy (PDF  - 311 KB), (June 2013). 
      • AFL introduces online whistleblowers service for players officialsAFL media, (September  2015). Clubs have recently been notified of the 'AFL integrity net' program, which has been developed with its consultancy partner Deloitte over the past four months. It will be opened immediately and allow players and officials across the competition to report anything they feel could compromise the integrity of the AFL. Some of the recent investigations have been:  Collingwood midfielder Jack Crisp was fined $5000 earlier this year for placing bets totalling $129 on AFL markets while he was with the Brisbane Lions.Emerging Western Bulldogs youngster Lachie Hunter was also investigated for a betting incident earlier this year but was cleared after the AFL found he had not breached League rules.  Hunter's betting account was used by another player – a member of the Western Bulldogs' VFL team – to place a bet on an AFL game.
    • Australian Rugby Union (ARU): Sports Betting information, (accessed 19 October 2017). 
      • The Australian Rugby Union has entered into agreements with a number of Approved Betting Operators (listed). The Betting Operators and ARU agree to share information and work together to maintain the ongoing integrity of ARU and Super Rugby matches and competitions. The Betting Operators ensure that a portion of the proceeds generated from Betting on Rugby matches played under the auspices of the ARU are returned to the ARU for reinvestment in Australian Rugby.

     
     World Map

    International


    Corruption in sport why a global problem requires a global solution?Law In Sport,(October 2015). Corruption, involving match-fixing and illegal sports betting respects no boundaries or jurisdictions. So why then are anti-corruption measures so often mired in jurisdictional disputes and multiple agencies confined to single sports, single issues and/or single countries or regions?  There is a case to be made for a global, centralised sports’ integrity body and, if so, what it might look like.  The four key stakeholders in the fight against corruption in sport are: The sports industry (namely: athletes, governing bodies, employing clubs and other participants like officials and support staff); The Betting industry (regulated and unregulated, legal and illegal, punter and bookie); Governments; and Law enforcement authorities.

      Europe FlagEurope

      • Convention on the Manipulation of sports competitions (Macolin Convention), Council of Europe, (2014). The purpose of this Convention is to combat the manipulation of sports competitions in order to protect the integrity of sport and sports ethics in accordance with the principle of the autonomy of sport. For this purpose, the main objectives of this Convention are: 
        1. to prevent, detect and sanction national or transnational manipulation of national and international sports competitions; 
        2. to promote national and international co-operation against manipulation of sports competitions between the public authorities concerned, as well as with organisations involved in sports and in sports betting.
      • Match-fixing in the Nordic countries. Lotteritilsynet, Lotteriinspektionen, National Police Board Gambling Administration, (September 2013). The purpose of the work is to strengthen the authorities’ awareness of match-fixing. By this, we mean exchanging information and assessing possible measures and regulations to effectively counteract manipulation of the outcome of sports events

      France FlagFrance

      • French Government launch monitoring program against match-fixing, Law in Sport, (2 February 2016). The French government has launched a new watchdog to monitor online betting in a bid to combat match-fixing, Sports Minister Thierry Braillard announced on Friday (AEDT). The body will allow for an exchange of information between the different authorities regulating online betting at national and international level along with sports federations and betting operators. "This platform bringing together all stakeholders will allow us to better arm ourselves against the scourge that is the manipulation of sports competitions".

      India flagIndia

      • India: Private members Bill proposes 10 year jail term for match-fixers, First Post, (2 May 2016) The Secretary of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has reportedly submitted a Private Members’ Bill in India’s parliament recommending a 10 year jail term for sportspeople convicted of match-fixing. According to local news outlets, Anurag Thakur, who is also an Indian MP, said that the move was ‘fair to bring in accountability to be fair to sports lovers’, highlighting that there was no current Indian law for match-fixing. The proposed ‘National Sports Ethics Commission’ bill will also set up a national sports ethics body

      New Zealand FlagNew Zealand

      • New Zealand Olympic Committee: Integrity Regulation (PDF  - 547 KB), NZOC, (9 February 2017). The NZOC’s vision is to inspire excellence and pride in New Zealanders and enable Athletes to achieve on the world stage. To help Athletes in this endeavour and compete in a safe and fair environment, the NZOC is committed to the protection of the integrity of competitions at the Games. This includes the fight against doping, match-fixing, illegal betting and corruption.
      • Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill, NZ Parliament, (2014). This bill was passed to help address match-fixing risks presented by New Zealand's hosting of the Cricket World Cup and the FIFA Under 20 (football) World Cup. 

      Norway flagNorway

      • National Action Plan Against Match-fixing in Sport 2013-2015, (PDF  – 299 KB), Norwegian Ministry of Culture, (February 2013). Match-fixing has no place in Norwegian sport. Effective prevention requires efforts from the sporting community, betting companies, the betting authorities and other public authorities. Since experience has shown that match-fixing occurs in both individual and team sports, this action plan is targeted at sport as a whole. 

      Russia FlagRussia

      United Kingdom flagUnited Kingdom (UK)

      • Sports Betting Integrity Action Plan Progress Report releasedUK Sport and Recreation Alliance, (3 February 2017). The Sports Betting Integrity (SBI) Action Plan 2016 Annual Progress Report (PDF - 200 KB) sets out the progress made in the last twelve months on implementing key actions designed to protect the integrity of sport from betting corruption.
      • UK Sports think-tank consultation document: A new strategy for sport (PDF - 650 KB) Sports Think Tank, (August 2015). The highest standards of governance are a huge benefit in guarding against the various risks to the integrity of sport, whether that be corruption, doping, match-fixing or any of the other challenges that sport regularly has to face (p.32).
      • UK Anti Corruption Plan, (PDF  - 1 MB), GOV.UK (December 2014). This Anti-Corruption Plan recognises the threat that corruption poses across different sectors both in the UK and overseas. It sets out the actions government will take to: make it harder for criminals in the UK to use corruption to carry out their crimes; strengthen the integrity of institutions across the public and private sectors; make best use of the UK’s position as a leading international aid donor and centre of world trade and investment to re-enforce the global fight against corruption; stamp out bribery and corruption; and raise global standards. 
      • UK Sports think-tank consultation document: A new strategy for sport (August 2015). The highest standards of governance are a huge benefit in guarding against the various risks to the integrity of sport, whether that be corruption, doping, match-fixing or any of the other challenges that sport regularly has to face (p.32).
      • UK Anti Corruption Plan (December 2014). This Anti-Corruption Plan recognises the threat that corruption poses across different sectors both in the UK and overseas. It sets out the actions government will take to: make it harder for criminals in the UK to use corruption to carry out their crimes; strengthen the integrity of institutions across the public and private sectors; make best use of the UK’s position as a leading international aid donor and centre of world trade and investment to re-enforce the global fight against corruption; stamp out bribery and corruption; and raise global standards.
      • UK position paper on inplay betting (September 2016). Great Britain’s Gambling Commission has reiterated that in-play betting poses no more of a risk to the integrity of sport than more ‘traditional’ forms of betting, concluding that no further regulation is required. ‘Despite the concerns raised about the risks to integrity from in-play betting, there is limited evidence to show that the risks are greater than those associated with pre-event betting’ The Position Paper highlighted that in-play betting now accounts for over one-third of online betting gross gaming yield (GGY – i.e. money retained by licensed gambling operators). In 2016, the Gambling Commission reported an online GGY was £3.6 billion, meaning that licensed operators now take £1.2 billion per year from online in-play betting.  ‘There is the potential for individuals to exploit in-play betting for criminal or otherwise inappropriate gain’, reads the Position Paper. ‘However, other forms of betting also have similar potential for exploitation’.  The Position Paper also outlined that the Gambling Commission does not consider ‘courtsiding’ an offence under the Gambling Act 2005, however said that it may breach the entry conditions of sporting events. ‘Courtsiding’ involves using or transmitting information from a live sporting event in order to benefit from any delay between the live action and TV/data feeds in order to profit on the betting markets.

      Where possible, direct links to full-text and online resources are provided. However, where links are not available, you may be able to access documents directly by searching our licenced full-text databases (note: user access restrictions apply). Alternatively, you can ask your institutional, university, or local library for assistance—or purchase documents directly from the publisher. You may also find the information you’re seeking by searching Google Scholar.

      resources iconResources

      • Keep Australian sport honest. Australian Government, National Integrity in Sport Unit (2017). This e-learning program is designed to help you understand what match-fixing is, its consequences, how to recognise it and report it. There are four different modules to complete. At the end of each, there will be a short quiz to help you understand each section. To pass, you must achieve a score of 100%. Once you have successfully completed the modules you will know how to effectively keep Australian sport honest.
      • Integrity Tools for Sporting Organisations. Australian Government, National Integrity of Sport Unit (2016):
      • INTERPOL IOC Handbook on Protecting Sport from Competition Manipulation (August 2016). The International Olympic Committee and INTERPOL have published a handbook on Protecting Sport from Competition Manipulation
      • Resource Guide on Good Practices in the Investigation of Match Fixing, (PDF  - 1.1 MB) United Nations Office on Drugs & Crime/International Centre for Sport Security, (2016). This Resource Guide has been prepared primarily for those who are interested in understanding this threat and finding practical ways to tackle it. In this regard, its principal use is to help investigators from law enforcement agencies and sports organizations that have been tasked with investigating allegations of match-fixing. In addition, the Resource Guide contains information that may be of relevance to prosecutors, the judiciary, policymakers and legislators, among others.
      • Sports Integrity E-Book (PDF  - 4.9 MB), National Integrity in Sport Unity, Australian Government, (2017). The Sports Integrity e-book was prepared by National Integrity of Sport Unit (NISU) following on from the 2017 Integrity Roadshow. It provides information about  a range of integrity issues, tips for sports and individuals, and a comprehensive list of resources available including courses and education options.
      • Students explore integrity in sportAustralian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA), (28 October 2016). School Lesson Plans are adaptable for students in years 9 to 12 and explore issues such as performance-enhancing drugs in sport, fairness in sport, playing by the rules, ethical decision making, and other sports integrity topics. Of particular relevance in this area are: Topic 3: Match Fixing in Sport; Topic 5: Ethical Decision-Making in Sport.  

      ReadingReading

      • Criminal activity undermining European sportThe UK Parliament Magazine, (December 2014). The great corruption and betting scandals of recent years, such as the 700 or so matches under suspicion of being fixed that were uncovered as part of the VETO investigations continues to threaten the integrity of sport.  Match fixing is a growing problem that is supported by professionally organised criminal structures. 
      • 'The dawn of sports corruption in a globalised way'ABC AM, (16 Sept 2013). Investigative reporter Declan Hill has been writing about and studying the global growth in match-fixing for more than a decade. His book The Fix has been published in 20 languages. Declan Hill, who lives in Canada, says the sums of money outlaid on sports betting in Asia are beyond comprehension and Australia is now being targeted by the match-fixers.
      • Ghosts fixed the match, Declan Hill, Play The Game, (9 September 2015). The fixing of fictitious matches is among the outcomes of a sports data revolution that is currently transforming sport.  Someone somewhere had created a fictitious match on the gambling market. They had presumably made thousands of Euros betting on the ‘successful’ outcome of the game that they had made up. It is called ‘data-fixing’.  The Ponferradina-Freamunde match is an example of a new form of sports corruption. This fixing is at the intersection of two modern-day phenomena that are transforming sport.  Another example from tennis: If most fans think that Nadal will score the next point, but the gambler knows that Federer will take it, they can place a bet in the few seconds before that happens and thus make an enormous amount of money.
      • Match-fixing: the Australian legislative response, Fox F, FlagPost, Australian Parliamentary Library (March 2013). This article traces the government response to the Australian Crime Commission Report into Organised Crime and Drugs in Sport.
      • Match Fixing and Sports Betting, Daly, J, (October 2015). Summary of recent and historical coverage of sports betting issues.
      • Match-fixing case law update important lessons from Olaso, Blake and Vanakorn, Kevin Carpenter, Law In Sport, (8 September 2015). The judgments in three match-fixing cases published in the past 12 months highlight the variety, scope and complexity of conduct prejudicial to the integrity of sport. The cases come from three different sports, tennis, rugby union and skiing, with two of them related to betting and the other alleged course of conduct undertaken to manipulate an event for sporting reasons.
      • Micro-betting: a dangerous form of gambling luring in vulnerable Australians, Alex Russell, Senior Postdoctoral Fellow, CQUniversity Australia, The Conversation, (15 November 2018). Provides an overview of recent research that found evidence of the prevalence of micro-bets being placed by Australian sports gamblers. More than one third of regular Australian sports gamblers make micro-bets, predominantly using offshore operators. Micro-bets refer to bets on small events within play (e.g. the next point, ball, goal). The evidence also showed that micro-bets were strongly linked to problem gambling. 
      • More women on sports boards would reduce corruption, match-fixing doping, Kirsten Lawson, The Canberra Times, (August 2015). More women on sporting boards is likely to lead to less corruption, doping and match-fixing, sports researcher Catherine Ordway says – but not, she argues, because women are more ethical; because diversity on boards tended to break up "group think" – the more diverse a board in the gender, culture and backgrounds of its members, the broader the mix of ideas and creativity.  Australia was vulnerable to match-fixing because of the proximity of Asia and the perception of Australian sport as clean, which made it "interesting to gamble on", leading to vulnerability to corruption.
      • Protecting the Integrity of Sport Competition The Last Bet for Modern Sport. An executive summary of the Sorbonne-ICSS Integrity Report Sport Integrity Research Programme, 2012-14 (PDF -528 KB). The recurrence of scandals taking place in a certain number of competitions provides a preview of the magnitude of the phenomenon affecting and preoccupying public opinion and competent authorities beyond the sporting world.
      • Sports betting becoming normal for Aussie children Lucie van den Berg, Herald Sun, (August 2016). An investigation into the perception of sports wagering in the AFL, NRL and soccer, has found some children see it as something “everyone does”.
      • Sports lawyers worried about extent of match-fixing at International Law Conference in AdelaideABC news, (October 2014). Match fixing had become the number one threat to sports integrity.  Criminal gangs and criminal individuals like to associate with sport, it's not just money laundering, its image laundering as well.  There are some estimates 25 per cent of world sport now is controlled by organised crime says sports lawyer Prof Jack Anderson.
      • 'Sports Movement agrees on unified strategy to tackle irregular betting', Rogge Jacque, International Olympic Committee, (June 2010). Under the leadership of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the sports movement today agreed on a series of recommendations aimed at protecting and maintaining the integrity of sport if and when put at risk by irregular betting.
      • Transparency international launches corruption in sport initiative, Stine Alvad, Play The Game, (16 April 2015). The Corruption in Sports initiative will continue to present new analyses, commentaries and articles in six different subjects: Governance, Major events, Match-fixing, Grassroots sport, US collegiate sport and the role of participants – within and beyond the sports family. 

      Research iconResearch

      • 'A critical mass of corruption: why some football leagues have more match-fixing than others', Hill, Declan, International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, Vol. 11 Issue 3, (Apr 2010). This paper examines what drives match-fixing in football and why some leagues collapse from corruption. Based on more than 220 interviews with players, referees, sports officials and law enforcement officers, the gambling industry and corrupters, three factors presented when high levels of match-fixing were observed: strong illegal gambling networks, high levels of relative exploitation of players, and perceived corrupt officials. Leagues collapsed if the public became aware of high-level corruption and an alternative market competitor was introduced.
      • Gambling sponsorship of sport: An exploration of links with gambling attitudes and intentions Nerilee Hing, Peter Vitartas & Matthew Lamont, International Gambling Studies, (July 2013).
      • Initiation, influence, and impact: adolescents and parents discuss the marketing of gambling products during Australian sporting matches, Hannah Pitt, Samantha L. Thomas and Amy Bestman, BMC Public Health, (September 2016). Harmful gambling is a significant public health issue. Alongside the rapid diversification of gambling products, are rapid increases in the marketing for specific types of gambling products, such as online wagering. While concern has been raised about the impact of gambling promotions during sporting matches on the gambling beliefs and behaviours of adolescents, very little research has explored adolescents’ and parents’ attitudes towards the marketing of gambling products within sport.
      • Lone-Wolf Match-Fixing: Global Policy Considerations, John Holden & Ryan Rodenberg, International Journal of Sport Policy & Politics, Volume 9(1), pp.137-151, (2017). The rise of reported instances of match-fixing in sport is staggering. Match-fixing has been called one of the most serious threats to the integrity of sport. Absent from the literature on match-fixing is attention to the concept of lone-wolf match-fixing. While multi-party organised match-fixing presents a substantial threat to sport, sport may face an even greater threat from lone-wolf match-fixing, where the fixer perpetrates the attack in the absence of communication with others. Using doctrinal legal research methods and statutory interpretation, we examine select European, North American, Oceanic and Asian legal frameworks for preventing match-fixing. We conclude that sport faces a very real threat from inadequate statutory protection, with lone-wolf match-fixing likely being permissible in certain jurisdictions. Given this legal gap, numerous countries are unprepared to combat individually motivated match-fixers seeking to manipulate sporting events.
      • The Media and Sports Corruption: An Outline of Sociological Understanding, Numerato, Dino, International Journal of Sport Communication, Vol. 2 Issue 3, (Sep 2009).  
      • "Say It Ain't So": Betting-Related Malpractice in Sport. Forrest, David; McHaIe, Ian; McAuley, Kevin, International Journal of Sport Finance, Vol. 3 Issue 3,  (Aug 2008). The paper identifies key changes in the betting environment that have raised risks to the integrity of sport. The risks are discussed in the context of a model where potential fixers evaluate the costs and benefits to them of engaging in manipulation of events on the field for betting gain. Using this framework, particular markets and situations are indicated as especially susceptible to corruption and these predictions appear to be consistent with the set of cases that have been exposed in contemporary sport. Possible policy responses are discussed.
      • 'Towards Increasing Understanding of the Importance of Ethical Governance in Australian National Sporting Organisations', Daly, J, Health Sciences, University of South Australia, (2011). 

      Video icon Clearinghouse Videos

      Please note a number of the resources below (as indicated) are restricted to ‘GOLD' AIS Advantage small AIS Advantage members only.
      Please see the Clearinghouse membership categories for further information.

      Other Vidoes

      • Integrity of sport forum Sydney - segment of match-fixing, Play By The Rules, (May 2015). This forum addresses other sports integrity issues, but the specific match-fixing segment by Damien Voltz, senior intelligence analyst (commences at 1hr 17 minutes).  
      • Homemade Highlights: Olympic Badminton Scandal, Wall Street Journal/YouTube, (1 August 2010). Eight badminton players were disqualified from the London Games on Wednesday. The Wall Street Journal Journal replays the action... with clothespins puppets.
      • BBC Panorama - FIFA's Dirty Secrets - Part 1 & Part 2, Andrew Jennings/YouTube, (18 December 2010). Investigative reporter Andrew Jennings investigates corruption within FIFA.

       



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