Sports Nutrition

Sports Nutrition

Prepared by : Christine May, Senior Research Consultant, Clearinghouse for Sport
Last updated : 30 January 2020
Content disclaimer : See Clearinghouse for Sport disclaimer

Introduction

Sports nutrition involves the science and practice of eating to promote optimal health and performance.  It plays an important role in supporting the performance of elite athletes. 

The athlete’s background diet should meet their needs for growth and function—with special attention to the intake of nutrients (both timing and quantity) that support the fuel and fluid needs of training, and promote recovery and adaptation.  The everyday training diet should support the athlete to stay healthy, maintain optimal body composition and support desirable physiological adaptations to training.

Key areas of research and practice

While there are a number of ways in which nutrition can impact the health and performance of athletes some key areas of research and application include: 

Both hyper-hydration (total body water above normal) and hypo-hydration (total body water below normal) impair the body's ability to function.

  • Hyper-hydration, also known as water intoxication, can decrease sodium in the blood to dangerously low levels, causing mild to life-threatening problems. People who participate in endurance activities, such as a marathon or triathlon, can be at risk. Symptoms can include: confusion, nausea, and vomiting. Severe cases can cause seizures, coma, and death.
  • Hypo-hydration can impair the body's ability to regulate heat resulting in increased body temperature and an elevated heart rate. Perceived exertion is increased causing the athlete to feel more fatigued than usual at a given work rate. Mental function is reduced which can have negative implications for motor control, decision making, and concentration. Gastric emptying is also slowed, resulting in stomach discomfort. These effects can all lead to impaired exercise performance. 

Fluid replacement plans will differ according to the athlete and the opportunities for drinking during the sport. Most types of exercise are adversely affected by hypohydration, especially when they are undertaken in hot conditions, and negative effects have been detected when fluid deficits are as low as 2% (i.e. a deficit of 1.2 litres for a 60 kg athlete). This can contribute to a condition called heat illness. 

Additional information is available in the Clearinghouse topic, Heat Illness in Sport and Exercise

There are a number of sports in which competition is conducted within weight limits or classes (e.g. boxing, combat sports, horse racing). The idea in these sports is to match opponents of equal size and capability. Some athletes however, will try to gain an advantage by competing in a weight class that is below their training weight. This can lead to 'extreme' practicessuch as exercising in sweat suits; fluid and energy restriction; or diuretic and laxative usewhich may be encouraged and condoned by people within the sport - despite the health risks to athletes.  

It is strongly recommended that athletes involved in weight category sports seek the advice of a suitably qualified sports dietitian to individualise their weight management plans and short term weight-making techniques. 

Nutritional strategies can address the assessment of individual nutrition needs, performance goals, eating style, and capacity to eat well within living circumstances. Issues that require individualised attention include nutrient deficiencies (e.g. iron), body composition management, failure to recover well from training sessions, and specialised competition eating plans.

Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a syndrome which can adversely affect the health and performance of athletes. It exists when there is a negative balance between dietary energy intake and the energy expenditure required to support optimal health, daily living activities, growth, and sport.     

Although much of the research and literature relating to RED-S has been an outgrowth from studies of the Female Athlete Triad it is important to note that the condition can affect men and women, able-bodied and disabled populations, and individuals of various races.

RED-S can impair physiological functions including (but not limited to): 

  • Metabolic rate
  • Menstrual function
  • Bone health
  • Immunity
  • Protein synthesis
  • Cardiovascular health 

[Source: Margo Mountjoy et.al., (2014) The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad—Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S)British Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 48, pp.491-497]. 

Additional information is available in the Clearinghouse Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport topic. 

Position Statements

Reading

  • 2018 UPDATE: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), Dr Nicky Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine blog, (30 May 2018). Provides a brief overview of changes made in the updated IOC consensus statement on RED-S. 
  • An evidence-based approach to Relative Energy Deficit in Sport (RED-S) (PDF  - 2.1MB). Jennifer M. Doane, conference presentation, EATA Annual Meeting & Clinical Symposium, (8 January 2016). Provides an overview of the Female Athlete Triad vs RED-S and explains the impact of starvation diets on athletes. Identifies current best-practice for evaluating athletes suspected of RED-S and instituting evidence-based decision making for treatment and return-to-play.
  • Raw And Real: RED-S. Katie Schofield, blog post, (14 September 2014). Provides a personal story of an educated (degree in nutrition) elite athlete when she was diagnosed with RED-S, what it was like for her, and a good plain language overview of the signs, symptoms, and potential dangers of RED-S.
  • Relative energy deficiency in sport. Margo Mountjoy, Aspetar Sports Medicine Journal, Volume 4, (October 2015). Provides an overview of RED-S, the health and performance implications, RED-S in male athletes as well screening, treatment and return to play considerations. Additionally, there is information specific to aquatic sport athletes.
  • What is relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S)? Katherine Schaumberg, UNC Center of Excellence for Eating Disorders, (6 April 2017). This blog post provides a quick overview of RED-S and techniques for determining if athletes are getting adequate food relative to their exercise output.

Research

  • Endocrine Effects of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, et al., International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, Volume 28(4), pp.335-349, (2018). This paper highlights endocrine changes that have been observed in female and male athletes with low EA. Where studies are not available in athletes, results of studies in low EA states, such as anorexia nervosa, are included. Dietary intake/appetite-regulating hormones, insulin and other glucose-regulating hormones, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1, thyroid hormones, cortisol, and gonadal hormones are all discussed. The effects of low EA on body composition, metabolic rate, and bone in female and male athletes are presented, and we identify future directions to address knowledge gaps specific to athletes.
  • Female Recreational Exercisers at Risk for Low Energy Availability. Joanne Slater, Rebecca McLay-Cooke, Rachel Brown, and Katherine Black, Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, Volume 26 (5), (October 2016), pp.421-427. One-hundred and nine female recreational exercisers, with a mean age of 23.8 (SD 6.9) years were recruited via gyms and fitness centers throughout NZ. Participants completed an online questionnaire including questions from the LEAF-Q (Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire). A total of 45.0% (CI, 35.4%, 54.8%) of participants were classified as “at risk“ of LEA. For every extra hour of exercise per week the odds of being at risk of LEA were 1.13 times greater (CI 1.02, 1.25, p = .016). All participants reporting previous stress fracture injuries (n = 4) were classified as at risk for LEA. Significantly more subjects participating in an individual sport were classified as at risk for LEA (69.6%, CI 24.3%, 54.8%) compared with team sports (34.8%, CI 18.7%, 40.5%) (p = .006). The high prevalence of female recreational exercisers at risk of LEA is of concern, emphasizing the importance of increasing awareness of the issue, and promoting prevention and early detection strategies, so treatment can be implemented before health is severely compromised.
  • Low energy availability in females: A sleeping giant, Lundy B, Burke L, Vlahovich N, Welvaert M, Hughes D, Waddington G and Drewa M, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 20, Supplement 1 (2017). Low energy availability can occur when an athlete restricts their energy intake and/or increases the volume or intensity of training, with the consequence that there is no longer sufficient energy to fulfil the functions needed to stay healthy. While the previous focus on low energy availability targeted menstrual function and bone health, there is now evidence that the consequences are wider ranging. This study suggests that female athletes who present with illness should be screened for low energy availability. Assistance to better match nutrition and training may improve resilience against illness as well as other aspects of health and performance. 
  • Low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and impaired bone health: A survey of elite para athletes, Emily M. Brook  Adam S. Tenforde  Elizabeth M. Broad, et al., Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, Volume 29(5), pp.678-685, (2019). Factors associated with the Triad/RED‐S were present in an elite para athlete population, regardless of sex or sport type. Awareness of the Triad/RED‐S in para athletes was low. The consequences of LEA in para athlete populations are poorly understood. However, the high prevalence of factors observed suggests value in advancing screening tools and education efforts to optimize health in this population.
  • Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport in Male Athletes: A Commentary on Its Presentation Among Selected Groups of Male Athletes, Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, et al., International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, Volume 28(4), pp.364-374, (2018).  This commentary describes the insights and experience of the current group of authors around the apparently heightened risk of LEA in some populations of male athletes: road cyclists, rowers (lightweight and open weight), athletes in combat sports, distance runners, and jockeys. The frequency, duration, and magnitude of the LEA state appear to vary between populations. Common risk factors include cyclical management of challenging body mass and composition targets (including “making weight”) and the high energy cost of some training programs or events that is not easily matched by energy intake. However, additional factors such as food insecurity and lack of finances may also contribute to impaired nutrition in some populations. Collectively, these insights substantiate the concept of RED-S in male athletes and suggest that a specific understanding of a sport, subpopulation, or culture may identify a complex series of factors that can contribute to LEA and the type and severity of its outcomes.
  • RSS feed. Latest research from the Clearinghouse for Sport databases. Please note: link currently only displays properly in Internet Explorer. 

Resources

  • RED-S CAT: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S_ Clinical Assessment Tool (CAT). (PDF  - 602 KB). British Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 49 (7), (2015), pp.421-423. The RED-S Clinical Assessment Tool (RED-S CAT) has been developed by the IOC working group as a tool to help sports medicine professionals with the practical screening and management of RED-S athletes. The tool is modelled after the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT-3) which has been successfully used in clinical practice. The RED-S Risk Assessment and Return to Play (RTP) models use a Red Light (high risk) – Yellow Light (caution) – Green Light (low risk) scale to help evaluate athletes/active individuals suspected of having relative energy deficiency and for guiding return to play decisions. The model is flexible enough to allow sports medicine professionals to apply their knowledge of sport-specific demands and individual characteristics to the decision making paradigm. 

Clearinghouse Videos 

Other Videos

  • Katie Schofield Interview: Goal setting, dealing with disappointment and RED-S. Katie Schofield & Matty Graham, Exponential Performance Podcast/YouTube, (18 July 2017). Katie Schofield went from athletics to a world class track cyclist. As part of this podcast she discusses: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, her experiences and research (starts: 28.30).
  • Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). Dr Margo Mountjoy, Aspetar/YouTube, (30 March 2015). Dr Margo Mountjoy talks about the pathophysiology and evolution of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). She discusses the implications of RED-S in terms of health and performance and how male athletes are affected. In addition to this, Dr Mountjoy proposes the RED-S clinical assessment tools for screening and return to play.
  • Female Athlete Triad and Its Components: Toward Improved Screening and ManagementMayo Proceedings/YouTube, (3 September 2013). Dr. Asma Javed, a Clinical Fellow in Pediatric Endocrinology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, provides clarity to the condition known as "Female Athlete Triad" as a range of conditions surrounding disordered eating, amenorrhea, and bone loss in women athletes, which is best treated with nutrition repletion. 

The use of supplements and sports foods by athletes involves a balance between potential benefits (e.g. contribution to an evidence-based sports nutrition program) and risks (e.g. waste of resources, distraction, poor role modelling, or anti-doping rule violations).

  • The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed a world-leading supplement classification system. The ABCD Classification system ranks sports foods and supplement ingredients into four groups based on scientific evidence and other practical considerations that determine whether a product is safe, legal, and effective in improving sports performance. 
  • Sports and Exercise Nutrition Register (SENr) Supplement use in Sport Position StatementBDA: the Association of UK Dietitians, (June 2017). The aim of this position statement is to provide Athlete Support Personnel (ASP) with a guide to appropriately assess the need for supplementation, assess the risk of supplementation, understand the consequences of taking supplements from an anti-doping perspective, and provide practical guidelines and tools for the safe usage in order to support athletes and ASP.
  • Get informed about supplements: your frequently asked questions about supplements in grassroots sport (PDF  - 861 KB). Play by the Rules, special magazine issue (2016). Supplements are not just 'good' or just 'bad', that's why it's very important you know what's right for you - because what's right for one person is not necessarily what is right for another. Play by the Rules provides some answers to commonly asked questions on supplements in grassroots sport.

Australian NSO supplement policies and guidelines

Athletics iconAthletics Australia

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Australian Taekwondo

cricket-smallCricket Australia

cyclingCycling Australia

football-smallFootball Federation Australia

Hockey-smallHockey Australia

Winter-sport-smallOlympic Winter Institute Australia

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rowing-smallRowing Australia

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  • Sport Science and Sport Medicine (November 2018). Need to click on the 'Sports Science and Sports Medicine Policy' link under Integrity Framework section: Chapter 3: Supplementation policy; Chapter 4: Medication policy; Chapter 5: Injection policy.

Sport Climbing

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SwimmingSwimming Australia

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National Institute Network (NIN) policies


Other resources 

Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA)

  • Supplements information, (accessed 2 April 2019). 
  • ASADA Clean Sport is a mobile app which lists every batch-tested supplement sold on Australian shelves, and gives athletes a way to assess the risk of other products. It is available on Apple and Android phones and tablets. 
  • Online education. Free and easy-to-use tool featuring online courses, videos and learning updates about the key areas of anti-doping such as prohibited substances and methods, Therapeutic Use Exemptions, doping control, intelligence and investigations.

Play by the Rules

  • Supplements: Know what you are doing [ebook], special magazine issue, (2016). Supplements are not just 'good' or just 'bad', that's why it's very important you know what's right for you - because what's right for one person is not necessarily what is right for another. Play by the Rules provides some answers to commonly asked questions on supplements in grassroots sport.

World Anti-Doping Authority (WADA)

Groups, societies and professional bodies

  • Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) is a professional organisation of dietitians specialising in the field of sports nutrition. SDA maintains strong links with Sports Medicine Australia (SMA) and Exercise and Sport Science Australia (ESSA).
  • Dietitians Association of Australia (DAA) is the peak body of dietetic and nutrition professionals in Australia providing strategic leadership in food and nutrition through empowerment, advocacy, education, accreditation and communication.

World Map

Flag of Canada Canada 

  • Dietitians of Canada (DC) is the professional association representing 6,000 members at the local, provincial, and national levels with regional offices in British Columbia, Alberta, and the Territories, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic Canada.

Europe FlagEuropean Union 

  • European Specialist Sports Nutrition Alliance (ESSNA). ESSNA was founded in 2003 with the intention of creating a forum for discussion and vehicle for actions on the concerns of the specialist sports nutrition sector in order to secure appropriate and proportionate European legislation on sports nutrition products.
  • European Federation of the Associations of Dietitians (EFAD) was established in 1978 to promote and develop the dietetic profession; facilitate communication between national dietetic associations and other organisations and individuals; and encourage better nutrition for the population of European member countries.  

New Zealand FlagNew Zealand

United Kingdom flagUnited Kingdom

  • BDA: the Association of UK Dietitians - Sports Nutrition Specialist Group is for dietitians and nutritionists who work in sport or have an interest in sport. the aim of the group is to provide professional development opportunities; develop resources to support; and act as a voice for dietitians/nutritionists working in sport and exercise nutrition. 
    • Sport and Exercise Nutrition Register (SENr) is a voluntary register designed to accredit suitably qualified and experienced registrants, who have the competency to work autonomously as a Sport and Exercise Nutritionist with performance oriented athletes, as well as those participating in physical activity, sport, and exercise for health.

USA FlagUnited States

Vocational Education and Training

person typing on laptop

The majority of sports nutrition professionals in Australia are dietitians. In addition to studying human nutrition, a dietitian has undertaken a course of study that includes substantial theory and supervised and assessed professional practice in clinical nutrition, medical nutrition therapy, and food service management.   

According to the Dietitians Association of Australia, Accredited Practising Dietitians (APDs) are committed to improving the health of Australians through the provision of accurate practical nutrition information. The requirements for becoming an APD include an aptitude for science, an enquiring mind, good organisation skills, initiative, good written and verbal communication skills, and the ability to work well with others. The Association also gives a list of currently accredited dietetic programs provided at Australian universities.

Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) provides a career pathway for aspiring dietitians to gain qualifications and accreditation with the association. Members are required to accrue points for professional development and professional experience and log these via the members only section of the website. SDA offers courses in sports nutrition for dietitians.

The International Confederation of Dietetic Associations also provides International Competency Standards for Dietitian-Nutritionists (PDF  - 394 KB), (2016). These are the minimum recommended competencies that any dietetics practitioner should demonstrate at the point of entry to the profession, and act as a framework for continued professional development throughout professional life. 

Industry leading sports dietitians are committed to maintaining and improving their skills with a focus on best practice.  For example, many sports dietitians who work with elite athletes are accredited anthropometrists through the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). Professional development is encouraged by means of regular journal clubs, mentoring, attendance at national and international conferences, and upgrading of qualifications through completing masters or PhD studies. The AIS also supports Sports Nutrition Fellows to undertake the International Olympic Committee Diploma in Sports Nutrition as an additional qualification.

Further Resources and Reading

  • Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics. The  National Collegiate Athletic Association,  Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition, and The Collegiate and Professional Sports Dietitian Association  are working together to provide nutrition information on the topic of health and safety for collegiate athletes, coaches, administrators and others through the development of Articles and Webinars.
  • Dietary Supplements for Exercise and Athletic Performance: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals, National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements (US), (accessed 29 January 2018). This fact sheet provides an overview of selected ingredients in dietary supplements designed or claimed to enhance exercise and athletic performance. 
  • Dietary Supplements for Exercise and Athletic Performance: Fact Sheet for Consumers, National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements (US), (accessed 29 January 2018). This fact sheet describes what’s known about the effectiveness and safety of many ingredients in dietary supplements that are promoted to improve exercise and athletic performance.
  • International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). Provides a variety of resources relating to Nutrition in Athletics including: Eating and exercise during Ramadan; Practical Guide to Nutrition; Nutrition for athletics: The 2007 IAAF Consensus Statement; and the IAAF Medical Manual Chapter 6: Nutrition.
  • mysportscience, Asker Jeukendrup. Provides a variety of infographics, videos and blog posts on research in sport nutrition and other related disciplines. 
  • Nutrition Australia. Website includes information and fact sheets relating to Sports Nutrition, as well as more general nutrition information and resources. 
  • Sports Dietitians Australia. Website includes Fact sheetsRecipes and a Blog
  • YLMSportScience infographics. Provides a broad range of infographics summarising research in sport nutrition and other related disciplines. 

Articles

Australian

  • Evidence-based position statements and best practice guidelines, Australian Institute of Sport, (accessed 2 September 2019). The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) develops evidence-based position statements on new and complex topics in sports science and sports medicine, in order to provide guidance and leadership for the Australian high performance sport system. 
    • Current positions on: Concussion; Genetics; Urinary Tract Infections. 
    • Best practice guidelines on: Dry needling. 
  • Sports Dietitians Australia Position Statement: Sports Nutrition for the Adolescent Athlete, Desbrow, B., McCormack, J., Burke, L. M., et.al., International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, Volume 24(5), (2014). It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. 

Global

  • International Association of Athletics Federations Consensus Statement 2019: Nutrition for Athletics, Louise M. Burke, et.al, Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, Volume 29(2), pp.73-84, (March 2019). This consensus statement provides a summary of the contemporary principles of sports nutrition, identifying strategies that may be used by competitors in Athletics to enjoy a long, healthy, and successful career in their chosen event. The focus targets high-performance Athletes, while acknowledging the needs of some special elite populations (e.g., adolescents, females, masters) as well as the opportunity for the many nonelite competitors who enjoy Athletics (e.g., recreational marathon runners) to benefit from an appropriate translation of these principles into their own pursuits. 
  • Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise (PDF  - 1.9 MB). Bermon, Stéphane; Castell, Lindy M.; Calder, Philip C. et.al., Exercise Immunology Review, Volume 23, pp.8, (2017). A panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.
  • International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. Ralf Jäger et.al., Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, (June 2017). The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. 
  • International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: diets and body composition. Aragon, Alan A., et.al., Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, (June 2017). The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. 
  • International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks, Campbell, Bill, Colin Wilborn, Paul La Bounty, et.al., Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Volume 10(1), (2013). The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES).   
  • International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: caffeine and peformance, Goldstein, Erica R., Tim Ziegenfuss, Doug Kalman, Richard Kreider, et,al., Journal International Society of Sports Nutrition, Volume 7(1), (2010) The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance. 

International Olympic Committee

  • IOC consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S): 2018 update, Mountjoy M, Sundgot-Borgen JK, Burke LM, et al., British Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 52(11), pp.687-697, (2018). The IOC RED-S consensus authors have reconvened to provide an update summary of the interim scientific progress in the field of relative energy deficiency with the ultimate goal of stimulating advances in RED-S awareness, clinical application and scientific research to address current gaps in knowledge.
  • IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad—Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), Mountjoy, Margo, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, et.al., British Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 48(7), (2014). Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. 
  • IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete, Maughan RJ, Burke LM, Dvorak J, et al., British Journal of Sports Medicine, (published online 14 March 2018). Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. The appropriate use of some supplements can benefit the athlete, but others may harm the athlete’s health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation (if an antidoping rule violation results). This review summarises the issues faced by high-performance athletes and their support team (coach, trainer, nutritionist, physician) when considering the use of supplements, with the goal of providing information to assist them to make informed decisions.

United Kingdom (UK)

  • Sports and Exercise Nutrition Register (SENr) Supplement use in Sport Position StatementBDA: the Association of UK Dietitians, (June 2017). The aim of this position statement is to provide Athlete Support Personnel (ASP) with a guide to appropriately assess the need for supplementation, assess the risk of supplementation, understand the consequences of taking supplements from an antidoping perspective and provide practical guidelines and tools for the safe usage in order to support athletes and ASP.   

United States (US)

Clearinghouse Videos 

Other Videos

  • How much does an elite rower really eat? YouTube/Rowing Australia, (1 June 2016). The Australian Rowing Team's lead Nutritionist, Bronwen Lundy, takes us through the average food consumption of Australia's top rowers while also sharing some helpful tips for up-and-coming rowers.
  • IOC Diploma Sports NutritionYouTube/IOC. Contains a large number of short videos with various experts regarding topics relevant to sport nutrition.

Related Topics

 



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