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Volunteers in Sport

Volunteer management

Volunteers should be recognised for their contribution to the organisation/s they serve. Developing and implementing a Volunteer Management Plan, or similar, helps ensure volunteers are managed in accordance with best practice principles, including suitable recognition and appreciation. Research and evidence indicates that a planned approach to managing sport sector volunteers and their volunteer experience will enhance satisfaction and improve retention.

National standards for volunteer involvement

Workplace health and safety

Event management

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Additional resources

  • The changing face of volunteerism, Steggles A, Higher Logic, (2014). This paper details some of the challenges facing volunteerism. Associations are embracing a hybrid approach to incorporate alternative engagement opportunities for their membership, thus allowing a much broader audience and greater level of engagement, satisfaction and ultimately, an improved retention rate.
  • Virtual volunteering in community sport, Haley Baxter, Katie Misener, Pam Kappelides, and Lowell Williamson, SIRCUIT, (13 July 2020). Physical distancing measures and stay-at-home protocols during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic illuminated how technology can keep people connected and involved in their local communities. These new ways of working provide an opportunity for community sport clubs to tap into existing and new volunteers in innovative ways. This article explores the concept of virtual volunteering and its benefits and provides suggestions for incorporating virtual volunteering into community sport now and as an ongoing practice to increase capacity and engagement.
  • Volunteering Australia Response on a National Sports Plan, Volunteering Australia, (July 2017). The National Sports Plan aims to guide future priorities and approaches of the Australian sporting sector for the long-term. Volunteering Australia believes that a National Sport Plan needs to: acknowledge volunteering as a key pillar for sporting activity in Australia; and develop mechanisms to facilitate and enhance its contribution. They have also emphasised the need to consider volunteering in policy development and workforce planning. The response highlights the need for a sustained investment into the volunteering sector by the Australian Government to ensure long-term benefits.
  • Volunteering: Building Stronger Communities, Discussion PaperGovernment of Western Australia, Department for Communities, (2010). Volunteers are an invaluable resource to the social, economic, environmental and cultural strength of Western Australia. Active volunteers and well-supported community groups build connected communities by strengthening the ties between people, encouraging participation, and responding to the changing needs of the community.
  • Volunteers, champions of the GamesInternational Olympic Committee, (4 December 2012). IOC summary of the importance of volunteerism to the London Olympic Games.
  • The Advantage Line: identifying better practice for volunteer management in community rugby clubs, Cuskelly G, Taylor T, Hoye R, Darcy S, Australian Research Council and the Australian Rugby Union, (2006). This report provides a descriptive analysis of data collected from Rugby Union clubs and their volunteers. The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of how to manage the activities of volunteers.
  • Beyond 2012 – OutcomesCommission for a Sustainable London 2012, (2012). Chapter 4 of this report covers volunteering.
  • The Canadian Code for Volunteer InvolvementVolunteer Canada, (2012). A report on volunteers detailing three important elements that articulate overarching values, guiding principles and organisational standards applicable to volunteer programs in non-profit and voluntary sector organisations.
  • Evaluating the volunteering infrastructure legacy of the Olympic Games: Sydney 2000 and London 2012, Leonie Lockstone-Binney, Kirsten Holmes, Richard Shipway, and Karen A. Smith, International Olympic Committee Olympic Studies Centre Advanced Olympic Research Grant Programme 2015/16, Final Report, (June 2016). The current study sought to explore how Olympic volunteer programmes can lead to post- Games volunteer legacies for host cities through engagement with the established volunteer infrastructure in host cities, based on the experiences from Sydney 2000 and London 2012. The authors provide recommendations relating to the required resources, structures, delivery mechanisms, strategy, and knowledge transfer that could facilitate better volunteer outcomes/engagement for future projects.
  • Givers: Recruit, manage and retain your volunteers more effectivelyJoin in, Sport + Recreation Alliance, Simetrica, (April 2017). For the first time, groundbreaking behavioural science research, has given us new evidence and insight into what drives people to volunteer, and what keeps them from doing so. We’ve distilled these insights into a simple framework to help grassroots clubs and organisations recruit, retain and realise the potential of volunteers. We call this GIVERS. It stands for: Growth; Impact: Voice: Ease and Experience; Recognition; Social.
  • London 2012 Games markers: Towards redefining legacy, Dickson T and Banson A, Government of the United Kingdom, Department of Culture, Media & Sport, (2013). Volunteering is an essential aspect of many mega-sporting events with stakeholder rhetoric suggesting that it is desirable and that these events will leave a ‘volunteering legacy’ beyond the Games. For London, work among a wide range of stakeholders has created a new volunteering spirit and an improved volunteer network with more opportunities and better training for those who want to give their most important commodity – time.
  • London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games: post-Games reviewNational Audit Office, (2012). This report focuses on the cost of the Games and contains a section on the impact of volunteers (p. 12).
  • State of Volunteering in Australia reportVolunteering Australia/PWC, (April 2016). The State of Volunteering in Australia report details the trends, demographics, challenges and successes in the volunteering sector in Australia. Volunteering Australia and PwC have conducted a survey to analyse the current state of volunteering in Australia, and to identify opportunities to maximise the potential of the volunteer workforce. The report investigates the following headline question: Are the current volunteer engagement and management practices appropriate for the future? Is there alignment between the types of roles volunteers want to undertake, the sectors they are interested in volunteering in, and the needs of volunteer involving organisations? What is the appropriate framework to support informal volunteering? What are the necessary steps that need to be taken to future proof volunteering? Sport is included as one of the industries/areas of volunteer participation investigated.
  • Volunteers in Sport: Issues and Innovations, Riot, Caroline, Cuskelly, Graham, Zakus, Dwight, Auld, Christopher, NSW Office of Sport, (2008). This study documents innovative practices used by NSW sports clubs to address the challenges of attracting and retaining volunteers.
  • Volunteer management practices and retention of volunteers, Hager M and Brudney J, The Urban Institute, (2004). This report is the second in a series of briefs reporting on the findings of a survey conducted in 2003 regarding volunteer management capacity among charities and not-for-profit organisations in the United States. Specifically, the survey looked at supervision and communication with volunteers, liability coverage for volunteers, screening and matching volunteers to jobs, collection of information on volunteer involvement, written policies and job descriptions for volunteers, recognition activities, measurement of volunteer impact, training and professional development for volunteers, and training for paid staff in managing a volunteer workforce.
  • A model of volunteer retention in youth sport, Kim M, Chelladurai P and Trail G, Journal of Sport Management, Volume 21(2), pp.151-171, (2007). The focus of this study was to investigate three different volunteer-retention models: (1) person-task fit); (2) person–organisation fit; and (3) managerial treatment. Volunteer  organisations need to focus on empowering their volunteers through the fit of the volunteer structure to the task, organisation, and appropriate managerial treatment.
  • A multi-level framework for investigating the engagement of sport volunteers, Wicker P and Hallmann K, European Sports Management Quarterly, Volume 13(1), (2013). Previous research has extensively investigated the drivers of the decision to volunteer on an individual level. As volunteering usually occurs within an institutional context (e.g., sport club and sport event), the characteristics of the institution must also be considered; however, they have been largely neglected in previous research. A review of the literature on both levels reveals both theoretical and methodological shortcomings which this paper attempts to address.
  • Characteristics of voluntary sports clubs management: A sociological perspective, Theil A and Mayer J, European Sport Management Quarterly, Volume 9(1), pp.81-98, (2009). The aim of this paper is to discuss the general characteristics of voluntary sports club management. The analysis shows the following: the absence of explicit organizational objectives makes it very difficult to validate successful development. The incongruity of power and professional competence, and the ambiguous distribution of tasks hampers well-grounded decision making. Furthermore, recruiting managerial staff from within the club is a major factor that prevents organizational change. Consequently, specific management concepts for voluntary sports clubs need to be developed. In doing so, blindly transferring economic concepts must be avoided in order to ensure that public utility is not jeopardized in the long run.
  • The commitment of volunteers in community-based sport: A research review and agenda, Engelberg T, Skinner J, and Zakus D, Australia and New Zealand Third Sector Research, Volume 12(2), (2006). Non-profit community-based sport organisations traditionally rely on a committed volunteer workforce. Significant social and policy changes are, however, influencing volunteers attitudes and behaviour. This paper examines commitment and its specific significance for such a volunteer labour force. Commitment frameworks and research, particularly in volunteer settings, are reviewed. The discussion then addresses how the nature of these environmental changes may affect the nature of volunteers' commitment, and how, in turn, commitment may impact on key outcomes such as retention and performance. Finally, research avenues and practical suggestions for volunteer managers are presented.
  • Defining and measuring dimensionality and targets of the commitment of sport volunteers, Engelberg T, Zakus D, Skinner J and Campbell A, Journal of Sport Management, Volume 26, (2012). The organizational commitment of volunteers has been recognized as essential for the effective management of community-based sport. Despite this, little is known about the nature of sport volunteer commitment and, more specifically, its dimensionality and targets. This study developed measures of sport volunteer commitment within a framework of multiple dimensions of commitment and multiple targets of commitment to three organizational targets in the sport volunteering setting: the organization (in this context, the athletic center), the volunteer work team, and the volunteer role.
  • Determinants and Outcomes of Volunteer Satisfaction in Mega Sports Events, Daehwan Kim, Chanmin Park, Hany Kim, Sustainability, Volume 11(7), (2019). The role of volunteers is an important factor for the sustainability of mega sports events. Key issues in the literature on sports event volunteers are volunteer satisfaction and its determinants and outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of the fulfillment of volunteers’ psychological needs and Volunteer Management Practices (VMP) on overall volunteer satisfaction, and to test their conditional effects depending on volunteer involvement. Overall volunteer satisfaction was found to positively affect future volunteering intention, spreading positive words regarding sports event volunteering, and intention to visit the host city as tourists. In conclusion, sports event managers need to design an optimal work environment that can fulfill volunteers’ psychological needs and improve VMP to enhance the sustainability of mega sports events.
  • The determinants of the intention to continue voluntary football refereeing, Thomas Giel, Christoph Breuer, Sport Management Review, Volume 23(2), pp.242-255, (April 2020). The purpose of this research is to identify the factors that determine the intention to continue voluntary refereeing in the context of football in Germany. Analysis reveals the motive of self-orientation, respect shown by athletes, coaches, and spectators towards referees, compatibility of refereeing with one’s occupational and private life, perceived organisational support, and referees’ satisfaction to predict referees’ positive intention to continue with their activity. Simultaneously, experiences of offences during refereeing negatively influence this intention, and younger referees show higher intentions to continue their activity than do older referees. Because volunteer recruitment and retention are expensive, the findings of this study facilitate the improvement of effective retention strategies for the federations responsible for referees.
  • Exploring the commitment of volunteers in Little Athletics centres, Engelberg T, Skinner J and Zakus D, Volunteering Research Symposium, (2006). The organisational commitment of volunteers has been identified as a key factor affecting the organisation and delivery of community-based sport. However, research has primarily focussed on commitment to the whole organisation overlooking the fact that volunteers can develop commitments to various organisational targets. In this study we drew on Meyer and Herscovitch’s (2001) general model of commitment to assess the commitment of volunteers in Little Athletics centres in NSW to three targets: the centre, the work team, and the volunteering role.
  • Exploring the relationship between commitment, experience, and self-assessed performance in youth sport organizations, Engelberg T, Skinner J and Zakus D, Sports Management Review, Volume 14(2), pp.117-125, (2011). A sample drawn from Little Athletics centre volunteers in Queensland, serving in a variety of roles, completed a survey to assess their involvement and knowledge. Findings show that organisational commitment and experience as a volunteer predicted involvement, and that commitment to the role and experience predicted knowledge.
  • How do sports clubs recruit volunteers? Analyzing and developing a typology of decision-making processes on recruiting volunteers in sport clubs, Schlesinger T, Klenk C and Nagel S, Sport Management Review, Volume 18(2), pp.193-206, (2015). This article examines the decision-making processes in the recruitment of volunteers. Data was collected from nine case studies of selected sport clubs. Results showed that the decision-making processes are generally characterised by a reactive approach, rather than a strategic one. Decision-making seems to be shaped frequently by inconsistency, unexpected outcomes, and randomness. This leads to the question how can decision-making processes in sport clubs be examined adequately? It was possible to develop a typology that gives an overview of how different decision-making practices interact; situational versus systematic decisions, and top-down versus bottom-up driven decisions. The most effective practices were the result of top-down and systematic decision-making. The least effective practices were driven by situational decision-making, regardless of whether the decision was made using a top-down or bottom-up approach. The researchers concluded that recruitment practices in sports clubs cannot be modelled on comparable practices in the corporate sector. The key to successful recruitment practices lies in the commitment and competence of the central decision-makers within the club who are responsible for club policy.
  • Identifying Competencies of Volunteer Board Members of Community Sports Clubs, Anne-Line Balduck, Annic Van Rossem, Marc Buelens, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 39(2), (2010). This study contributes to the emerging empirical studies on roles and responsibilities of boards in nonprofit organizations by identifying competencies of volunteer board members. We identified how two types of constituents—volunteer board members and sports members—perceived competencies of volunteer board members in community sports clubs. We used the repertory grid technique to draw cognitive maps and to reveal the perceived reality of these constituents. Our results suggest that constituents within a group share similar perceptions of competencies of outstanding performing board members, whereas they agree less on perceptions of poor performing board members. This study reveals that cognitive (e.g., having a long-term vision, having professionalism), emotional intelligence (e.g., being reliable, being honest), and social intelligence (e.g., listening to others, being jovial/nice to be with) competencies are necessary to be perceived as an outstanding performing board member.
  • The impact of volunteer experience at sport mega‐events on intention to continue volunteering: Multigroup path analysis, Hyejin Bang, Gonzalo A. Bravo  Katiuscia Mello Figuerôa, et al., Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 27(4), pp.727-742, (May 2019). This study examined the impacts of volunteers’ motivation and satisfaction through Olympic/Paralympic volunteering experiences on their intention to volunteer for future community events and the moderating role of previous volunteering experience in the relationships among motivations, satisfaction, and intention to continue volunteering. Path analysis revealed that among the total sample, motivations had direct and indirect (through satisfaction) effects on intention to volunteer. Results of multigroup path analysis showed that the relationships among motivations, satisfaction, and intention vary by returning and first‐time volunteers, supporting the moderating role of prior volunteering experience in the path model.
  • Lean thinking in leisure: continuously improving event volunteering and management, Clayton J. Hawkins and Michael S. Bonney, Annals of Leisure Research, Volume 22(3), pp.362-372, (2019). The events industry is facing rapid societal change. Issues such as professionalization of the industry, competing funding streams, a crowded market, and decreasing access to volunteer labour are creating an environment of need for solutions. This paper proposes the application of lean thinking as a platform for simplification and continuous improvement in the event industry as a case example of potential broader relevance to the leisure industry. It scopes the event industry context, discusses the concept of lean, and proposes the testing of lean as a philosophy and methodology to assist event organizers and their volunteers navigate the changing event industry context. This paper also examines the potential benefits of lean to time poor volunteers to maximize the value of their participation.
  • Managing sport volunteers with a disability: Human resource management implications, Pam Kappelides, Jennifer Spoor, Sport Management Review, Volume 22(5), pp.694-707, (November 2019). Despite the known benefits of volunteering–such as helping others, contributing to community and the development of skills–individuals with a disability are underrepresented in volunteering roles. In this research, the authors examine the benefits and barriers to including volunteers with a disability in three Australian sport and recreation organisations, as well as the potential human resource management implications.
  • Measuring motivation to volunteer for special events, Monga M, Event Management, Volume 10(1), (2006). The author has developed a measurement scale for motivation to volunteer for special events. This article first explores several fundamental aspects of the complexities of the relationship between the volunteer and the event organiser. It then presents a five-dimensional model to better understand the motivations of special event volunteers as measured by a 26-item scale developed on the basis of a literature review on special events and motivation to volunteer. Finally, the scale is tested in a survey and the findings are presented.
  • Organisational commitment: Implications for voluntary sporting organisations, Engelberg T, Zakus D and Skinner J, Australian Journal on Volunteering, Volume 12(1), (2007). The not-for profit sport sector is heavily reliant on volunteers for its functioning and ultimately its survival. Recent social and legal/policy changes are having a profound impact on volunteers' attitudes and behaviour. One vehicle for understanding the role of attitudes and behaviour in volunteer settings is the examination of organisational commitment. Committed individuals are believed to be more likely to remain in their organisations and to expend more effort on their behalf. This paper examines theory and research on organisational commitment with a specific focus on the implications of commitment to volunteer retention and performance. These implications are important for a sustainable volunteer management programs and the future of Australian sport.
  • The Organisational Commitment of Volunteer Administrators in Sport, Cuskelly G,National Sport Research Council, Australian Sports Commission, (1996). The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of organisational commitment amongst volunteer administrators in sport. A number of variables were found to be significantly predictive of organisational commitment. These included age, occupational prestige, number of years as an organisational member, house per week put into administration, rate of meeting attendance, altruism, and perceived committee functioning. It was concluded that volunteer administrators were positively committed to their sporting clubs and associations, but their level of commitment was contingent upon how they perceived the functioning of their committee. Further, volunteering as an administrator was not perceived as a leisure experience by those who engaged in this activity.
  • Pioneer volunteers: the role identity of continuous volunteers at sport events, Fairley S, Green B, O’Brian D and Chalip L, Journal of Sport & Tourism, (2 December 2015). This study looks at the role identity of 125 volunteers during lead-up events as well as their participation in the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. In addition, a small sample were interviewed 12 years after the Olympics. Six themes described the experience of ‘pioneer volunteers’ (i.e. continuous volunteer participation): (1) friendship and teamwork; (2) prestige; (3) behind the scenes access and knowledge of the event; (4) learning enabled by their experience; (5) a sense of connection with and ownership of the event, and; (6) transition to Games time roles. Pioneer volunteers experienced a strong and sustained identification with their role and sought out continued opportunities to volunteer in future events.
  • Reconsidering the role of training in event volunteers’ satisfaction, Costa C, Chalip L, Green C and Simes C, Sport Management Review, Volume 9(2), (2006). In order to effectively recruit and tain volunteers, there is a need to identify ways of enhancing their overall satisfaction with the volunteer experience. This study surveyed non-specialist volunteers (N=147) participating in the Sunbelt IndyCarnival. The survey looked at measuring their job satisfaction, evaluation of their training, organisational commitment, sense of community at the event, and satisfaction with their opportunities to share opinions and experiences during training. The survey found their sense of community had a positive effect on their commitment to the event organisation and their commitment to the organisation had a direct effect on their job satisfaction. It is argued that the training of event volunteers should be conceived and designed as an opportunity to build a sense of community among volunteers and staff, so as to enhance volunteer commitment and satisfaction.
  • Recruitment and Retention of Referees in Nonprofit Sport Organizations: The Trickle-Down Effect of Role Models, Pamela Wicker & Bernd Frick, VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, Volume 27, pp.1304–1322, (2016). This study examines the trickle-down effect of role models on the retention of already active referees and the recruitment of new referees in German football (soccer). Secondary panel data on the number of referees and role models (i.e., referees promoted to the status of a Bundesliga or FIFA referee) were collected for the 21 regional football associations. The regression results show that the presence of role models has a statistically significant and positive effect on the number of existing referees. The number of new referees is positively affected by referees who were promoted to the status of a first Bundesliga referee, but not by those promoted to the status of a FIFA referee. The findings suggest that nonprofit sport organizations should capitalize on the effect of role models to a greater extent.
  • Volunteer Coaches in Youth Sports Organizations: Their Values, Motivations & How to Recruit & Retain, Bouchet A and Lehe A, Journal of Youth Sports, Volume 5(1), (2010). All youth sports organisations are different in how they function and how they operate. One similarity is that they all face the same types of issues regarding volunteers.
  • Volunteer management practices and volunteer retention: A human resource management approach, Cuskelly G, Taylor T, Hoye R and Darcy S, Sport Management Review, Volume 9, pp.141-163, (2006). This study examines the efficacy of volunteer management practices in predicting perceived problems in volunteer retention. Participants were a sample of 375 Australian Rugby Union clubs from across Australia. Seven volunteer management constructs (planning, recruitment, screening, orientation, training and support, performance management, and recognition) were assessed. This study found significant relationships between perceived retention problems and several of the volunteer management constructs. Clubs that reported more extensive use of planning practices and training and support practices were likely to report significantly fewer perceived problems in the overall retention of volunteers. Results indicated significant relationships between management practices and retention problems, with variances noted by the category of volunteer position (e.g. management committee or board members, coaches, team managers and volunteers in other formal positions). Implications for volunteer management and retention are discussed.
  • Volunteer motives and retention in community sport: A study of Australian Rugby Clubs, Cuskelly G, Taylor T, Darcy S, Australian Journal on Volunteering, Volume 13(2), (2008). The retention of volunteers has been identified as a significant organisational challenge for community sport organisations. In this study, 402 volunteers from community rugby clubs were surveyed about their motivations to volunteer and intention to remain as volunteers. The results indicate that while volunteer motivations are primarily based on altruistic values, intentions of volunteers to remain with their club are only moderately affected by these motives.
  • Volunteer retention in community sport organisations, Cuskelly G, European Sport Management Quarterly, Volume 4(2), (2004). This paper examines and explains trends in volunteer participation and retention using continuity theory; within the context of government policies aimed at increasing participation in community sport. A secondary analysis of data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2002) is used to illustrate recent volunteer and player participation trends in sport.
  • Volunteer satisfaction in sports clubs: A multilevel analysis in 10 European countries, Siegfried Nagel, Ørnulf Seippel, Christoph Breuer,, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, (1 November 2019). Regular voluntary engagement is a basic resource for sports clubs that may also promote social cohesion and active citizenship. The satisfaction of volunteers is an imperative factor in this engagement, and the purpose of this article is to explore individual and organizational determinants of volunteer satisfaction in sports clubs. Results show that the most important determinants of satisfaction are the conditions of volunteering (recognition, support, leadership and material incentives) and the workload of volunteers. Surprisingly, club characteristics, size or having paid staff are not significant determinants of volunteer satisfaction. The results of this analysis can assist more effective volunteer management in sports clubs that are facing challenges of individualization and professionalization.
  • Volunteers and mega sporting events: Developing a research framework, Baum T and Lockstone L, International Journal of Event Management Research, Volume 3(1), (2007). This paper seeks to identify the evidence gaps that exist in understanding areas such as what volunteers do at mega sporting events; who they are; what motivates them; how volunteering impacts upon their lives; what associated activities they do surrounding the event in the host city; and the ongoing extent of volunteering.
  • Aktive Volunteer Management Toolkit, Sport NZ, (September 2019). The purpose of the Toolkit is to provide information, insights and ideas that will assist organisations to find and look after volunteers who can help to deliver their sport or activity.
  • The Centre for Volunteering NSW (accessed 26 August 2020). Provides a number of useful guides and tools for organisations that recruit, train and manage volunteers. Topics covered include: event volunteering, training, youth volunteering, and working with volunteers.
  • Handbook on volunteering of migrants in sports clubs and organisationsEuropean Sport Inclusion Network and Football Association of Ireland, (2016). Volunteering plays an important role in bringing people together to achieve common community or societal goals. Sports clubs can provide a focal point for a community, offering common ground where people from diverse backgrounds can collectively work together. This Handbook has been developed as a guide and support for potential volunteers with a migrant background who have an interest in volunteering their time in sport. It has also been developed for local clubs and sports organisations interested in encouraging and involving more people from diverse backgrounds to volunteer within sport.
  • Inclusive Futures: youth leadership and volunteeringYouth Sport Trust UK, (2016). Provides access to resources including good practice guidelines and toolkits to help guide sports clubs and event organisers to support inclusive volunteering opportunities.
  • Modern Club Management Kit, RSC Solutions, (accessed 12 May 2020). A company focussed on improving management in sport and community organisations, has produced a publication 'Modern Club Management Kit'.
  • The National Standards for Volunteer InvolvementVolunteering Australia, (2015). The National Standards for Volunteer Involvement (the National Standards) replace the National Standards for Involving Volunteers in Not-for-Profit Organisations. The National Standards have been developed in consultation with the volunteering sector to support the involvement of volunteers and act as a resource for organisations in which volunteers are involved. They provide a framework for organisations to consider the role of volunteers within the organisation and the impact effective volunteer involvement can have on achieving the strategic goals and aims of the organisation.
  • Recruiting volunteersSport Australia, (accessed 26 August 2020). Fact sheet about good practice in recruiting and orienting new volunteers for an organisation.
  • Rugby World Cup 2011 volunteering resourcesSport NZ, (accessed 26 August 2020). The 2011 Rugby World Cup was supported by New Zealand's biggest ever volunteer effort. Officially called the Rugby World Cup 2011 Volunteer Programme, it saw an unpaid workforce of more than 5000 play a crucial role in the delivery of a great sporting event. This resource covers planning, recruitment, training, volunteer compliance, uniform distribution, scheduling, reward and recognition, research and reporting.
  • Screening and the volunteer recruitment processVolunteering Australia, (2005). As well as assessing the general suitability of an applicant for a volunteer position, screening assists in risk management. Effective risk management helps protect organisations against financial loss, the risk of criminal or civil legal action and/or damage to their reputations
  • The Disability Resource, La Trobe University, (accessed 26 August 2020).  This resource website is designed for volunteers and staff who are involved in facilitating sport and active recreation experiences to gain an understanding of working for people with disabilities. The website can also be used for training programs, and would have the added benefit of being an ongoing resource and reference guide for volunteers and staff.
  • Victoria's Volunteering Portal - Department of Planning and Community DevelopmentDepartment of  Health and Human Services, (accessed 26 August 2020). The Department provides a number of resources for organisations that use, support, or manages volunteers.
  • Volunteer Management: The Case of Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games, Heeyle Park, Eric Olson, Iowa State University, (2020). Volunteer management is an integral part of any event that relies on volunteer contributions. Managing volunteers for events is related to three related domains: events, human resources, and volunteering. Each of the domains is discussed for its relation to volunteer management in the context of a sport event. The practice of managing volunteers is considered in terms of its phases. A real–life case is provided so that students can apply their understandings of volunteer management in resolving the case problems.
  • Volunteer Management ToolkitVolunteering Victoria, (2020). The toolkit is simple, easy to use and provides guidance for volunteer managers at each stage of the volunteering life cycle. It also includes: Hints and tips for best practice; Useful links; and, Downloadable templates.

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