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Volunteers in Sport

Influencing and engaging volunteers

Factors influencing volunteer participation

Barriers
  • Personal: time constraints/other commitments; overload; interpersonal issues; not knowing what opportunities exist/match skills.
  • Organisational: bureaucratic procedures; poor communication and/or guidance; club politics; increasing expectations (players, members, parents, etc.).
  • Social: community size (small-medium communities tend to have higher participation rates), gender (men are more likely to volunteer, or volunteer in certain roles); socio-economic status; having a disability; self-reported health problems.
Motivators
  • Personal: connecting with community; developing skills; enhancing career prospects; to feel good (self-esteem), participating in the sport.
  • Organisational: clear communication of expectations and guidelines; recognition, training, and mentoring opportunities; positive community/club culture.
  • Social: strengthening social relationships; contributing to community; ‘making a difference’.

Engaging volunteers

In 2014, the Australian Sports Commission conducted research on volunteer involvement in the sport sector to gain insights and help sports organisations develop targeted and effective volunteer recruitment and retention strategies. The primary purpose of the Market Segmentation for Volunteers study was to identify the core set of attitudes, motivators, needs and barriers that underpin the decision to volunteer in sport, rather than other (non-sport) activities. The information was used to develop a needs-based market segmentation model of Australian sports volunteers.

This research identified segments of the Australian community with the greatest potential to be recruited as sports volunteers and the best strategies and practices for recruiting and retaining current volunteers. Attitudinal segmentation is a useful means of grouping people within the broader population into segments with similar dispositions towards volunteering. Ten segments were identified, based on characteristics related to attitudes to volunteering and current volunteering behaviour.

Happy Helpers

Volunteers who support their family in their activities by volunteering in club sport. These volunteers are likely to be involved in multiple activities.

Community Committed

Motivated by the social interaction and enjoyment that volunteering offers. They have a feeling of identity and commitment to a community organisation and its future.

Opportunists

Volunteer to gain a personal benefit, such as practical skills or work experience. They also enjoy being part of the atmosphere of a sporting environment, or having the chance to meet elite athletes or sporting personalities.

Altruists

Have a desire to help others, to give back to the community, and to help the disadvantaged.

Overcommitted

Volunteer because they feel it is expected of them. They often feel they could use their time elsewhere.

Occupied Observers

Is not averse to volunteering for club sport, but they simply have other priorities and are most likely to volunteer if their own child is directly involved.

Sidelined

Persons who are open minded about volunteering, but injury, lack of time, or some other personal reason becomes a barrier.

Self Servers

Is yet to find a cause they feel passionate about. They may be motivated if they perceive a personal benefit.

Well Intentioned

Has no real reason to volunteer within the sport sector. They are unlikely to be sports participants themselves.

Uninvolved

Little interest in either sport or volunteering in general.

Each segment has its own set of challenges and opportunities that sports organisations must recognise and address if they are to recruit and retain volunteers with a particular mindset. For example, both Happy Helpers and Overcommitted people are likely to volunteer, but the challenge for club sport is to retain them as a volunteer across different life-stages, particularly once their children have moved-on from being sport participants. Likewise, Community Committed individuals are easily recruited, but the challenge for the club is to manage their enthusiasm and ensure their loyalty and commitment to the organisation does not intimidate new volunteers.

Clubs can also attract Self ServersSidelined and Occupied Observers to volunteer. Clubs can increase their chances of attracting Self Servers if they offer volunteer experiences that are tangible and provide personal benefit of some kind, such as learning useful skills or gaining work experience.

The Sidelined segment likes sport, so try offering a role that fits within their capabilities and other commitments. The Occupied Observer can also be encouraged to volunteer by shaping the role to accommodate their other time commitments.

Access to resources
Where possible, direct links to full-text and online resources are provided. However, where links are not available, you may be able to access documents directly by searching our licenced full-text databases (note: user access restrictions apply). Alternatively, you can ask your institutional, university, or local library for assistance—or purchase documents directly from the publisher. You may also find the information you’re seeking by searching Google Scholar.

Additional resources

  • Australian kids need active, sporty parents, Factsheet, AusPlay Survey, Australian Sports Commission, (2017).
  • The changing face of volunteerism, Steggles A, Higher Logic, (2014). This paper details some of the challenges facing volunteerism. Associations are embracing a hybrid approach to incorporate alternative engagement opportunities for their membership, allowing a much broader audience and greater level of engagement, satisfaction and ultimately, a higher retention rate.
  • Active Lives: Adult Survey, November 2018/19 ReportSport England, (April 2020). Based on people having volunteered at least twice in the last 12 months Sport England found that men continue to be much more likely to volunteer in sport and activity (58% male; 42% female). This is in contrast to more general volunteering where men and women were equally represented. Additionally, male volunteers in sport more often held positions of influence as coaches, officials, and committee members. The report also found that people from lower socio-economic groups were less likely to volunteer (making up only 11% of volunteers although they make up 31% of the population), and people with a disability, who make up 21% of the population, account for only 13% of volunteers.
  • The Future of Sport in Australia, Crawford M, Australian Government, Independent Sport Panel (2009). The report of the Independent Sport Panel, commonly known as the ‘Crawford Report’, noted the critical importance of volunteers to Australian sport. The report noted that "The Australian Government should develop and fund a national volunteer program for sporting and physical activity organisations that aims to attract and retain volunteers to sport through education, accreditation and recognition, and in particular takes account of the potential offered by the growing number of older Australians to become volunteers".
  • Givers: Recruit, manage and retain your volunteers more effectivelyJoin in, Sport + Recreation Alliance, Simetrica, (April 2017). For the first time, groundbreaking behavioural science research, has given us new evidence and insight into what drives people to volunteer, and what keeps them from doing so. We’ve distilled these insights into a simple framework to help grassroots clubs and organisations recruit, retain and realise the potential of volunteers. We call this GIVERS. It stands for: Growth; Impact: Voice: Ease and Experience; Recognition; Social.
  • Market Segmentation Study for VolunteersAustralian Sports Commission, (2014). The key findings of this research help identify the motivations of volunteers in the sport sector. This study identified ten segments among the Australian adult population, five are considered to be likely sources for the recruitment and retention of volunteers to the sport sector: Happy Helpers, Community Committed, Overcommitted, Opportunists, and Altruists. There are also five segments of the population less likely to become volunteers: Self Servers, Sidelined, Occupied Observers, Well Intentioned, and Uninvolved. This research confirms that the sport sector is doing some things really well, with nearly all club volunteers reporting they were satisfied with their experience. The study also provides key insights for the sport sector to better understand their volunteer workforce and how they might need to manage them into the future.
  • Red Card to Red Tape. how sport and recreation clubs want to break free from bureaucracySport and Recreation Alliance UK, (2011). Sport clubs are run by volunteers who give up their time because they love their particular sport and want to pass on the same opportunities they had, to give something back to their community or to feel part of something bigger. Yet many volunteers feel that their efforts are being wasted by the burden of official red tape and bureaucracy. They are spending club time and club money on things which mean little to the club. This report offers a number of recommendations that governments may consider as a means of streamlining the oversight of sports organisations.
  • Sport and Physical Recreation: a statistical overview, Australia 2012Australian Bureau of Statistics, Catalogue Number 4156.0, (2012) Final. This report provides information on the overall number of sport volunteers. According to the report there are 2.3 million Australians who perform volunteer work in sport and recreation organisations.  volunteers in sports organisations reported a variety of reasons for volunteering, with the three main reasons being: (1) to help others in the community (53% of volunteers); (2) personal satisfaction (46%); and (3) personal or family involvement (46%). Other key points from the report include:
    • 93% of sport and recreation volunteers participated in organised sport as a child. The ethos of volunteerism is ‘putting something back’ into the sport system that made an impact upon that person’s overall development.
    • Sport and recreation volunteers are involved in a range of activities, about half of all sports volunteers also volunteered in another type of organisation outside of sport.
    • There was a positive correlation between higher volunteering rates and being born in Australia, employed, and in couple families with children aged under 15 years.
    • 88% of volunteers are persons who are employed, working 41-48 hours per week.
    • Travel time did not appear to impact upon participation in sport and recreation volunteering.
    • There appears to be an association between rates of volunteering and socio-economic status – lower rates of volunteering being associated with socio-economic disadvantage.
    • Lower rates of volunteering are also associated with self-reported health problems.
  • Sport’s unsung heroes: Involvement in non-playing rolesAustralian Bureau of Statistics (Perspectives on Sport series), Catalogue Number 4156.0.55.001, (June 2011). Many local sporting clubs rely on volunteers to fill diverse roles; such as coaches, referees, committee members, groundskeepers, and canteen workers; many local sporting clubs rely on volunteers to fill these roles. The time commitment involved, and in some cases the need for specialised skills and knowledge, makes the people who occupy these non-playing roles a valuable community resource. This article looks at the characteristics of people in non-playing roles in the sport and active recreation sector.
  • State of Volunteering in Australia reportVolunteering Australia/PWC, (April 2016). This report details the trends, demographics, challenges and successes in the volunteering sector in Australia. Volunteering Australia and PwC have conducted a survey to analyse the current state of volunteering in Australia, and to identify opportunities to maximise the potential of the volunteer workforce. The report investigates the following headline question: Are the current volunteer engagement and management practices appropriate for the future? Is there alignment between the types of roles volunteers want to undertake, the sectors they are interested in volunteering in, and the needs of volunteer involving organisations? What is the appropriate framework to support informal volunteering? What are the necessary steps that need to be taken to future proof volunteering? Sport is included as one of the industries/areas of volunteer participation investigated.
  • Volunteering is catching: A study into young people's volunteering in Victoria, Wynne C, Youth Affairs Council of Victoria, (2011). This study draws on a contemporary understanding of volunteering that captures both the informal and formal volunteering activities of young people and defines youth volunteering as an activity where young people (aged 12 to 25) freely give their time and energy to benefit another individual, group or community. This report aims to understand the contemporary experience of volunteering for Victoria’s young people.
  • Volunteers in Sport, Australia, 2010Australian Bureau of Statistics, Catalogue Number 4440.0.55.001, (March 2012) Final. Data from the 2010 General Social Survey of the Australian population provides information about various aspects of volunteering and how these may relate to each other. This report provides a detailed analysis of the characteristics of volunteers in sport and physical recreation. People volunteering in the sport sector are split into two categories; volunteers in sport and physical recreation organisations only, and volunteers who participate in sport and other organisation(s).
  • Youth volunteering in Australia: An evidence review, Walsh L and Black R, Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth (ARACY), (2015). The literature shows that young people in Australia do engage in volunteering, both in formal and informal contexts. The drivers of young people’s volunteering activity are varied. The benefits of volunteering for young people are both personal and social and include strengthening social relationships, developing skills, enhancing career prospects, contributing to community and ‘making a difference’. While not specific to the sport sector, the review of literature highlights many of the barriers and facilitators of youth volunteering and the characteristics of volunteers in general.  Sport and recreation is identified as the single largest sector for youth engagement as volunteers.
  • A multi-level framework for investigating the engagement of sport volunteers, Wicker P and Hallmann K, European Sports Management Quarterly, Volume 13(1), (2013). Previous research has extensively investigated the drivers of the decision to volunteer on an individual level. As volunteering usually occurs within an institutional context (e.g., sport club and sport event), the characteristics of the institution must also be considered; however, they have been largely neglected in previous research. A review of the literature on both levels reveals both theoretical and methodological shortcomings which this paper attempts to address.
  • Assessing volunteer satisfaction at the London Olympic Games and its impact on future volunteer behaviour, Minhong Kim, Steven Suk-Kyu Kim, May Kim and James J. Zhang, Sport in Society, Volume 22(11), pp.1864-1881, (2019). The purpose of this study was to assess the dimensions of volunteer satisfaction at the 2012 London Olympic Games and its impact on future volunteer behaviour. The findings of this study shed light on the identification of volunteer satisfaction factors in the mega sporting event setting, particularly for a unique type of volunteer (i.e. media worker) assigned to a special set of tasks. Unlike Galindo-Kuhn and Guzley’s results that revealed participation efficacy and group integration to be strong predictors of volunteer satisfaction, organizational support was the primary predictor for media centre volunteers’ re-participation intention towards future volunteering programmes.
  • Beyond the glamour: resident perceptions of Olympic legacies and volunteering intentions, Richard Shipway, Brent W Ritchie, P. Monica Chien, Leisure Studies, Volume 39(2), pp.181-194, (2020). This study examines factors that influence residents’ volunteering behaviours post-completion of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. It posits that residents’ interactions with the event over time and their perceptions of event legacies are likely to exert influence on volunteering. Data were collected in two phases between January 2013 and April 2016 amongst residents living in the borough of Weymouth and Portland. The borough is in the county of Dorset in the South West of England and was the host destination for the sailing events of the 2012 Games. Our findings revealed that residents’ intention to volunteer post-Games declined between 2013 and 2016. Actual volunteering experience, perceived event legacy, commitment to the community, age and length of residence were found to contribute significantly to future volunteering intentions. While the results provide insights for those seeking to develop event legacy strategies to both recruit volunteers and to better leverage volunteering opportunities, it also cautions the claim of positive volunteering legacy made by the 2012 Games.
  • The commitment of volunteers in community-based sport: A research review and agenda, Engelberg T, Skinner J, and Zakus D, Australia and New Zealand Third Sector Research, Volume 12(2), (2006). Non-profit community-based sport organisations traditionally rely on a committed volunteer workforce. Significant social and policy changes are, however, influencing volunteers attitudes and behaviour. This paper examines commitment and its specific significance for such a volunteer labour force. Commitment frameworks and research, particularly in volunteer settings, are reviewed. The discussion then addresses how the nature of these environmental changes may affect the nature of volunteers' commitment and how, in turn, commitment may impact on key outcomes such as retention and performance. Finally, research avenues and practical suggestions for volunteer managers are presented.
  • Defining and measuring dimensionality and targets of the commitment of sport volunteers, Engelberg T, Zakus D, Skinner J and Campbell A, Journal of Sport Management, Volume 26, (2012). The organizational commitment of volunteers has been recognized as essential for the effective management of community-based sport. Despite this, little is known about the nature of sport volunteer commitment and, more specifically, its dimensionality and targets. This study developed measures of sport volunteer commitment within a framework of multiple dimensions of commitment and multiple targets of commitment to three organizational targets in the sport volunteering setting: the organization (in this context, the athletic center), the volunteer work team, and the volunteer role.
  • Determinants and Outcomes of Volunteer Satisfaction in Mega Sports Events, Daehwan Kim, Chanmin Park, Hany Kim, and Jeeyoon Kim, Sustainability, Volume 11(7), (2019). The role of volunteers is an important factor for the sustainability of mega sports events. Key issues in the literature on sports event volunteers are volunteer satisfaction and its determinants and outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of the fulfillment of volunteers’ psychological needs and Volunteer Management Practices (VMP) on overall volunteer satisfaction, and to test their conditional effects depending on volunteer involvement. Overall volunteer satisfaction was found to positively affect future volunteering intention, spreading positive words regarding sports event volunteering and intention to visit the host city as tourists. In conclusion, sports event managers need to design an optimal work environment that can fulfill volunteers’ psychological needs and improve VMP to enhance the sustainability of mega sports events.
  • The determinants of the intention to continue voluntary football refereeing, Thomas Giel, Christoph Breuer, Sport Management Review, Volume 23(2), pp.242-255, (April 2020). The purpose of this research is to identify the factors that determine the intention to continue voluntary refereeing in the context of football in Germany. Analysis reveals the motive of self-orientation, respect shown by athletes, coaches, and spectators towards referees, compatibility of refereeing with one’s occupational and private life, perceived organisational support, and referees’ satisfaction to predict referees’ positive intention to continue with their activity. Simultaneously, experiences of offences during refereeing negatively influence this intention, and younger referees show higher intentions to continue their activity than do older referees. Because volunteer recruitment and retention are expensive, the findings of this study facilitate the improvement of effective retention strategies for the federations responsible for referees.
  • Exploring the commitment of volunteers in Little Athletics centres, Engelberg T, Skinner J and Zakus D, Volunteering Research Symposium, (2006). The organisational commitment of volunteers has been identified as a key factor affecting the organisation and delivery of community-based sport. However, research has primarily focussed on commitment to the whole organisation overlooking the fact that volunteers can develop commitments to various organisational targets. In this study we drew on Meyer and Herscovitch’s (2001) general model of commitment to assess the commitment of volunteers in Little Athletics centres in NSW to three targets: the centre, the work team, and the volunteering role.
  • The impact of volunteer experience at sport mega‐events on intention to continue volunteering: Multigroup path analysis, Hyejin Bang, Gonzalo A. Bravo, Katiuscia Mello, et.al., Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 47(4), pp.727-742, (May 2019). This study examined the impacts of volunteers’ motivation and satisfaction through Olympic/Paralympic volunteering experiences on their intention to volunteer for future community events and the moderating role of previous volunteering experience in the relationships among motivations, satisfaction, and intention to continue volunteering. Path analysis revealed that among the total sample, motivations had direct and indirect (through satisfaction) effects on intention to volunteer. Results of multigroup path analysis showed that the relationships among motivations, satisfaction, and intention vary by returning and first‐time volunteers, supporting the moderating role of prior volunteering experience in the path model.
  • Modelling the decision to volunteer in organised sports, Hallmann K, Sport Management Review, Volume 18(3), pp.448-463, (2015). This paper looks at the available literature which identifies the determinants of volunteers in organised sports, and the time committed to that volunteering. The decision to volunteer can be considered a form of private consumption choice. Individuals have time at their disposal which they can be devoted to work or leisure; volunteering is only one of many choices. Considering both the decline in voluntary service and the necessity for most non-profit sporting clubs to recruit volunteers, it becomes essential to understand the drivers of volunteering. The theoretical model presented by the author contains factors from four domains: (1) demographics (age, gender, cultural background); (2) economic indicators (employment status, income, human capital); (3) sociological indicators (community engagement) and; (4) psychological indicators (preferences and experiences). The strength of each factor is estimated using a mathematical model.
  • Organisational and occupational commitment as predictors of volunteer coaches’ burnout, Engelberg T, Stipis C, Kippin B, Spillman S and Burbidge K, Australian Journal on Volunteering, Volume 14(1), (2009). This research examined the organisational and the occupational commitment of volunteer coaches in community-based sporting organisations and the implications of such commitment for coaches' experience of burnout. The findings suggest that commitment to the coaching role may be an important aspect of volunteer coaches' sense of self.
  • Organisational commitment: Implications for voluntary sporting organisations, Engelberg T, Zakus D and Skinner J, Australian Journal on Volunteering, Volume 12(1), (2007). The not-for profit sport sector is heavily reliant on volunteers for its functioning and ultimately its survival. Recent social and legal/policy changes are having a profound impact on volunteers' attitudes and behaviour. One vehicle for understanding the role of attitudes and behaviour in volunteer settings is the examination of organisational commitment. Committed individuals are believed to be more likely to remain in their organisations and to expend more effort on their behalf. This paper examines theory and research on organisational commitment with a specific focus on the implications of commitment to volunteer retention and performance. These implications are important for a sustainable volunteer management programs and the future of Australian sport.
  • The Organisational Commitment of Volunteer Administrators in Sport, Cuskelly G, National Sport Research Council, Australian Sports Commission, (1996). The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of organisational commitment amongst volunteer administrators in sport. A number of variables were found to be significantly predictive of organisational commitment. These included age, occupational prestige, number of years as an organisational member, house per week put into administration, rate of meeting attendance, altruism and perceived committee functioning. It was concluded that volunteer administrators were positively committed to their sporting clubs and associations, but their level of commitment was contingent upon how they perceived the functioning of their committee. Further, volunteering as an administrator was not perceived as a leisure experience by those who engaged in this activity.
  • Retention of sport event volunteers: The case of the 2011 Nordic World Ski Championship, Trond Svela Sand and Dag Vida Hanstad, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, (January 2019). This article examines retention factors among major sport event volunteers. Retaining those who have the required skills and knowledge is important for organizers of annual events. Fostering a new generation of volunteers is also critical for retention due to young volunteers’ weak ties to the organization, ad-hoc engagements, and aims of self-development and self-realization. Research so far has however focused on intentions rather than actual volunteering with respect to retention factors. This study contributes to the field by examining what characterizes return volunteers. Survey data (n=737) from 2011 Nordic World Ski Championship volunteers revealed that mem¬bership with The Association for the Promotion of Skiing (the local organizer), pre¬vious volunteer experience in sport, and an interest in skiing predicted a return as a volunteer at events the following year, whereas factors associated with reflexive volunteering were insignificant. The findings are discussed in relation to recruitment of volunteers and how to optimize retention.
  • Sport Volunteers and Other Volunteers: Some Data From the 2002 General Social SurveyAustralian Bureau of Statistics prepared for the Standing Committee on Recreation & Sport, (May 2005). This report completes a project on the 2004-05 SCORS Research Group (SRG) Work Plan to analyse data from the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) as relevant to volunteers with a view to determining the population groups more likely to volunteer and any social factors that may act as motivators.
  • Volunteer Coaches in Youth Sports Organizations: Their Values, Motivations & How to Recruit & Retain, Bouchet A and Lehe A, Journal of Youth Sports, Volume 5(1), (2010). All youth sports organisations are different in how they function and how they operate. One similarity is that they all face the same types of issues regarding volunteers.
  • Volunteer motives and retention in community sport: A study of Australian Rugby Clubs, Cuskelly G, Taylor T, Darcy S, Australian Journal on Volunteering, Volume 13(2), (2008). The retention of volunteers has been identified as a significant organisational challenge for community sport organisations. In this study, 402 volunteers from community rugby clubs were surveyed about their motivations to volunteer and intention to remain as volunteers. The results indicate that while volunteer motivations are primarily based on altruistic values, intentions of volunteers to remain with their club are only moderately affected by these motives.
  • Volunteer retention in community sport organisations, Cuskelly G, European Sport Management Quarterly, Volume 4(2), (2004). This paper examines and explains trends in volunteer participation and retention using continuity theory; within the context of government policies aimed at increasing participation in community sport. A secondary analysis of data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2002) is used to illustrate recent volunteer and player participation trends in sport.
  • Volunteering in sport is more prevalent in small (but not tiny) communities: Insights from 19 countries, Balish S, Rainham D and Blanchard C, International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 16(2), pp.203-213, (2018). Research suggests members of smaller communities are more likely to play sport. This study looked at whether members of smaller communities are also more likely to volunteer in sport. Data were acquired from the World Value Survey and analysis involved 22,461 participants from 19 countries. After controlling for country-level demographic variables (including sport participation), participants from communities with between 2,000-20,000 residents were more likely to report volunteering in sport, compared to participants from larger communities (> 500,000 population). The effect of community size occurred for all measured forms of volunteering. These findings provide novel evidence that participants from smaller communities are more likely to volunteer, even when controlling for sport participation. Future research will be needed to reveal the specific determinants and consequences of sport volunteering in smaller communities.
  • Volunteer satisfaction in sports clubs: A multilevel analysis in 10 European countries, Siegfried Nagel, Ørnulf Seippel, Christoph Breuer, et.al., International Review for the Sociology of Sport, (1 November 2019). Regular voluntary engagement is a basic resource for sports clubs that may also promote social cohesion and active citizenship. The satisfaction of volunteers is an imperative factor in this engagement, and the purpose of this article is to explore individual and organizational determinants of volunteer satisfaction in sports clubs. Results show that the most important determinants of satisfaction are the conditions of volunteering (recognition, support, leadership and material incentives) and the workload of volunteers. Surprisingly, club characteristics, size or having paid staff are not significant determinants of volunteer satisfaction. The results of this analysis can assist more effective volunteer management in sports clubs that are facing challenges of individualization and professionalization.
  • We can do it: Community, resistance, social solidarity, and long-term volunteering at a sport event, Kristiansen E, Skirstad B, Parent M and Waddington I, Sport Management Review, Volume 18(2), pp.256-267, (2015). This study aimed to contextualise the long-term commitment found in a whole community of volunteers and to explain this pattern of ‘collective volunteering’ not in terms of individual motivations, but in terms of broader social processes. Data was collected from interviews with volunteers in Norway who took part in events during the years leading up to the 2013 World Cup in ski flying. This research suggests that long-term volunteering can be understood in terms of: (1) a high level of social integration; (2) the creation of a collective identity focused around the sport and; (3) the maintenance and reinforcement of strong community identity and social solidarity.
  • Youth sport volunteer coach motivation, Busser J and Carruthers C, Managing Sport and Leisure, Volume 15(1-2), pp.128-139, (2010). This study explored the motivations of youth sport coaches. A sample of youth sport coaches completed the Volunteer Functions Inventory that measures motivations. Demographic information was also collected. Results indicated that values were the most important function for youth sport volunteer coaches. Implications for the recruitment and retention of youth sport coaches and future research are discussed.

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