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XIIth International Symposium on Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming

A method to calculate the vertical force produced during the eggbeater kick


30 Apr 2014


Nuno Oliviera, University of Edinburgh


Nuno Oliviera is a PhD Student at the Center for Aquatics Research and Education (CARE) at the University of Edinburgh. His background includes studies in sport science and exercise physiology. Current research focus on 3D kinematics and electromyography including the eggbeater kick. Research interests in biomechanics of human performance and rehabilitation.


The eggbeater kick is a technique used in water polo and synchronised swimming. Assessing eggbeater kick performance or comparing different performers has been done by determining the height achieved during the kick in the vertical position (Sanders, 1999; Homma & Homma, 2006; Klauck, 2006). Such methods are limited to the position of one anatomic marker (i.e. vertex, trochanter) and do not account for the subject’s mass or buoyancy factors. This study develops a method to determine the vertical force produced during the eggbeater kick.

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